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4. “That which is accepted as knowledge today is sometimes discarded tomorrow.”


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#1
mablibsking

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Hello guys! I'm a new person on the forum.
 
I need some help on the TOK Essay, as I'm kind of stuck.
 
I agree with this claim. Firstly, I'm going to explore the wording of the question. Sometimes: This implies of some knowledge claims are discarded, and some stay. This relates to the word discarded, as how discarded might not really mean discarded as we know it. It could be like evolution, as old theories are constantly being "evolved" by new theories, they are discarded. But we can say they're not discarded, but rather, the old theories simply were assimilated within the new theories and "evolved." This would correlate to the sometimes thing, as some are completely discarded, but some are simply assimilated into the new theories. Tomorrow might not really mean exactly tomorrow, but rather the near future. The word Accepted, imo implies that knowledge claims have to be approved by someone in order for them to be "correct" This someone can be Society, the Gov't, such and such. 
 
I've chosen History and Natural Sciences for this topic. I've created examples for each of the topics, and they support the claim. 
For History I chose revisionist historians, and how the history we learn changes with time, as revisionist historians change things so as to fit the truths. Because history is always incomplete, so old theories are in fact assimilated into the new theories, and a "better" and more accurate truth of the world is created. In this case, the truths of history is not sometimes discarded, but rather always adapted and made better. In this case, its more like the theories created by earlier generations and accepted throughout the world can change easily. 
 
For Natural sciences, there are plenty of these examples, but I chose Galileo and his discovery of the world. The Earth revolves around the Sun, and not Vice Versa. His theory were not accepted tomorrow, but "tomorrow," as it was in the near future that his theory was proclaimed to be true. And in this case, because of his theory, the idea of Earth being the centre was completely discarded, and not assimilated within the new theory. And also, the word accepted applies here, as his theory was condemned by other scientists, as well as the Pope. They did not accept his theory, and had "discarded" it. It goes to show that even theories (knowledge claims) that were not accepted can get discarded. 
 
With Knower's perspective, we're required to give examples in relation to oneself. I plan to use certain knowledge claims I've learned, and claim that my life has changed drastically because of me coming to know that one thing and such. 
 
However, the question explicitly asks for Knowledge Issues. So I'm kind of stumped as to what kind of KI I can bring in in accordance to the AoK and myself. What I have in mind is like:
 
What role do emotions(culture/religion) play in determining our future?
 
Though I don't know any other KI I can ask. 
 
Help is appreciated :D !

Edited by Sandwich, Jan 26, 2014 - 23:43.


#2
~Lc~

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I like the idea you have about discussing the wording, but instead of approaching it from the angle of what disregarded means, I would suggest you define the term how you want to represent it in your essay and go from there.

 

Otherwise, to use specific terminology about your argument in the first paragraph, what you are talking about is acceptance of knowledge as a result of conventional thought. "Convention" being the body which approves it.

 

Another thing which follows within these lines of argument are the relativity of truth, which you van visit through the WOK of language. Something along the lines of truth exists in the language we present it in, but that is relative to what we conventionally associate the"truth" in words etc.

 

In the paragraph of the natural sciences, you are discussing the falsification of scientific theory. I would also suggest including the scientific method as a tool of knowing in this AOK.

 

sounds like your on the right track overall though! I bet your essay will make for an interesting read :)



#3
Oscar Krumlinde

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I'm also a bit stuck on the knowledge issues... How many are we actually meant to mention? Is it better to only have 2-3 and discuss them over a broad range of WoK and AoK? Or are you discussing an k. issue for every new argument?

 

For the moment I'm trying to only focus on a few, I fear though that it will end up as a history essay. :D



#4
~Lc~

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Best thing to do is look at the marking sheet. When I was in IB we had to compare at least 2.

 

To avoid turning it into a histoy essay, try thinking about the subject as a 3rd person rather than discussing the subject itself. So don't discuss historical facts but focus on how the facts are collected, presented, percieved etc.



#5
Erasmusrasmus

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Best thing to do is look at the marking sheet. When I was in IB we had to compare at least 2.

 

To avoid turning it into a histoy essay, try thinking about the subject as a 3rd person rather than discussing the subject itself. So don't discuss historical facts but focus on how the facts are collected, presented, percieved etc.

Wait what marking sheet :o Like the assessment criteria for the ToK essay or are there individual ones regarding each topic?



#6
under-cover

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Best thing to do is look at the marking sheet. When I was in IB we had to compare at least 2.

 

To avoid turning it into a histoy essay, try thinking about the subject as a 3rd person rather than discussing the subject itself. So don't discuss historical facts but focus on how the facts are collected, presented, percieved etc.

Wait what marking sheet :o Like the assessment criteria for the ToK essay or are there individual ones regarding each topic?

 

Assessment criteria!! No specific criteria for each topic 



#7
Erasmusrasmus

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Oh okay thanks, phew I thought I had missed something very important for a second there :D



#8
Marie Robin

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I have the same topi How would you explain, with an example, that sometimes the truths of history are not sometimes discarded, but rather always adapted and made better?

 

I need an example and I cant come up with one. I need your help! :dontgetit: 



#9
Taisei Yamada

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Hey guys,

 

So the question, 

 

“That which is accepted as knowledge today is sometimes discarded tomorrow.” Consider knowledge issues raised by this statement in two areas of knowledge”

 

Will be my TOK topic, and I have chosen the natural sciences and history as my two areas of knowledge.

 

For the natural sciences, I will be talking about the development of medical knowledge, as far as surgical operations and the discoveries of new medical tools such as the iPSC and the extracellular matrix. I will be discussing how the development of medical discoveries shape the perception of the world, and how many medical knowledge have been "overwritten" with the new.

 

For History, I will be talking about the Korean Japanese Island Dispute, and will be discussing that historical information that have not been completely substantiated will cause tension between the two, and the perplexity in determining the truth will lead to serious consequences such as the difficulties of concording. 

 

However, after I have generally explained about the example of the natural sciences, I am stuck on how to continue my essay; would anyone please give me an insight on this?

 

Thankyou!

 



#10
wings

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Hello,

I'm doing it on the same topic, and might have some advice. :) 

Our teacher tells us to consider counter examples, and reply against those counter examples. This shows knowledge and understanding about the subject. 

Try to have a 3rd example, either another one in the natural sciences or in history. 

Hope I helped :) 



#11
under-cover

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Go back to the prescribed title and knowledge issue... how can these examples be used to produce a knowledge claim? And then a counter claim.

Do you have a knowledge issue? That is fairly important



#12
Taisei Yamada

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hey guys, thanks for your advice.

 

but when i got my paper back, i got an extremely despicable grade, hope i can get it up. 

 

is there anyone doing the same topic as me? 



#13
under-cover

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hey guys, thanks for your advice.

 

but when i got my paper back, i got an extremely despicable grade, hope i can get it up. 

 

is there anyone doing the same topic as me? 

yeah, this has happened to me too, especially because it is so unclear what you have to write about exactly.

My advice (based on what I've done wrong in the past) is this:

Re-make a plan and write down as many (loads!) of arguments and counter arguments as you can, then look back through these and develop the ones that are of most importance, and obviously merge those that go together.

Then, when writing your essay, make good connections to the AoKs and WoKs, maybe read a sample essay if you can find one online?

And make sure your essay is clear and your argument, with good analysis, is apparent to the reader. ask someone else to have a look and give you tips?

Hope this helps 

(By the way, I'm doing the same question so I know how hard it is!!)



#14
lupekudi

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hey i am doing the same topic too. my aok's are natural science and human science. i will insert more about islamic knowledge for human science and for natural science i will use about the shape of the planet.



#15
Connaitre

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hey i am doing the same topic too. my aok's are natural science and human science. i will insert more about islamic knowledge for human science and for natural science i will use about the shape of the planet.

 

My best advice to you would be to not include Islamic Knowledge. It's a lot harder to do a good essay with religious views as it's harder to find counter arguments. If you think you can manage though, great!



#16
gyf304

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I'm also a bit stuck on the knowledge issues... How many are we actually meant to mention? Is it better to only have 2-3 and discuss them over a broad range of WoK and AoK? Or are you discussing an k. issue for every new argument?

 

For the moment I'm trying to only focus on a few, I fear though that it will end up as a history essay. :D

Same thing over here. I don't actually know what the "knowledge issues" stand for - should I just stick to "That which is accepted as knowledge today is sometimes discarded tomorrow." or I should derive my own topic based on this?



#17
lupekudi

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maybe for the intro i will put the problem of used to the main road when finding a place by using a road. if we have know the shortcut to the place maybe we are no longer using the main road right? haha



#18
g17egler

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The one that I was going to use was "what is knowledge?" maybe I'm not sure its very vague but I'm sure we could add onto it



#19
ashleigh7

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You could also try to think about how 'knowledge' can change and be discarded, because we are never sure about the complete validity of our theories and claims. For example, in the Natural Sciences - we have all these scientific laws and theories which are considered correct. Note that these theories are all based on interpreting patterns, and it is also in some more interpretation of patterns that these theories can be 'proven' and hence the validity also proven. However, we never really know if our theory is completely valid or not - since we cannot observe ALL phenomena in relation to it. For example, if person A saw only white swans in his neighbourhood, then his theory that "All swans are white" could be considered valid to him and the people around him, since there are no white swans around, but we know that this isn't the case - that although his theory isn't necessarily disproved in his area, it is somewhere else, with the existence of black swans. And, all that you need to discard this theory is just one occurrence of something that doesn't fit in with the pattern. 

 

And for history: history can, and is oftentimes, recorded in such a way that the events are not portrayed exactly. For example, how do we know that the way the reporter of an event perceives the event doesn't alter the way he tells it? You can discuss about 'Ways of Knowing' here, particularly emotion and language. Emotion as a way of knowing can give us a biased view of circumstances, and these individuals will then use their bias and turn it into a report of events which has biased language. Thus, the 'history' being given to future generations is flawed and doesn't portray the real circumstances. Thus, sometimes improvements need to be made, and views considered acceptable can be discarded so that history can be improved. 



#20
Mostafa Eldamaty

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Hello guys,

 

I need some tips and hints for my TOK essay as I am kind of struggling with my prescribed question. 

 

After reading my prescribed question I have observed that it is about a progressive change,

for example: Start (new accepted knowledge) ----------> Change/Evaluate/Discard ----------> End (Why? WOK and KI) 

 

My teacher told me I need 3 issues that can be applied in 2 AOK, therefore I decided to write in Natural Science and History/Ethics:

  1. Phrenology Theory (Natural Science)
  2. Emission Theory (Natural Science)
  3. The reform movement in 16th Century, Martin Luther (History/Ethics)

My problem is I can't find possible KI/s and I don't know in which WOK should I apply in my KI/s.

 

Any tips or considerations would be appreciated. 

 

Thanks in Advance :smile:








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