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Talalwarsi5897

Urgent questions regarding citations

Sup.

 

So I have a few really bothering questions regarding citations that are impeding by essay completion and I would really appreciate any guidance.

 

1) Let's say I have paraphrased some info from a study and a write the name of the study in the sentence, i.e. "Kemp (1973) showed that....."

I'm still supposed to cite it, right? And in the footnote, am I supposed to put the same thing as is there in the bibliography?

 

2) Suppose I have referred to/taken some info from a study and put it on page 5, and then i refer to the same study again on page 18, how am i supposed to cite it? The same way? 

 

Any other tips would be really great. This stuff has confused me more than Organic Chemistry.

 

Cheers!

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I don't know the answer to 1) about the study in the sentence, but footnotes are usually formatted differently to bibliography entries (e.g., in Chicago firstname/lastname are switched), but for 2), it depends on your citation style. In Chicago, for example, a footnote (I see you are using them) for the instance of a source doesn't need the full sourcing, just the author(s)' last name(s) comma page number. For a book, for instance. 

 

I would consult https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/section/2/ based on what citation style you're using, because without knowing which one you're using no one can really answer your question accurately.

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1) Let's say I have paraphrased some info from a study and a write the name of the study in the sentence, i.e. "Kemp (1973) showed that....."

I'm still supposed to cite it, right? And in the footnote, am I supposed to put the same thing as is there in the bibliography?

2) Suppose I have referred to/taken some info from a study and put it on page 5, and then i refer to the same study again on page 18, how am i supposed to cite it? The same way? 

 

As mentioned by YBrion, it's really hard for us to answer your question without knowing which referencing style you're doing. However, i'll still answer anyway because I've used both referencing system with footnotes (Oxford style) and referencing system with in-text citations (APA style).

 

APA:

 

APA style does not use footnotes, but only in-text citations. With in-text citations, you can mentioned the author's name, the publishing year, and the page number. In-text citations can be used for both quotes & the stuff that you've paraphrased. There are also many different ways that you can add in-text citations as shown in the example below:

  • Michael Lynch (1990, p.127) claimed that "relations between USSR and China had never been easy".
  • During the Cold War, "relations between USSR  and China had never been easy" (Lynch, 1990, p.127)

If you happen to mention the same source in the later part of your essay, you can cite it in exactly the same way as you've done in the previous part of your essay. Now these in-text citations will be written in full in a separate section called Bibliography/Reference, in which you'll have to mention the author's name, the publishing year, publisher, the title, location, but not the page number. For example:

  • Lynch, M., (1990). Stalin and Khrushchev: The USSR, 1924–64, K. Randell and R. Pearce (eds), Hodder & Stoughton, London.

In my opinion, APA is the best style as it's pretty simple, intuitive, and very professional because it doesn't force the readers to look at those messy footnotes....

 

Oxford

 

Oxford style only uses footnotes, but not in-text citations. Here is an example

Let's say that this is a paragraph on page 5 of my essay:

  • In 1950, the Korean War marked Mao’s first disappointment with Stalin’s regime.1Mao had always expected the Soviet military aid for North Korea as they had promised; however no significant Soviet aids came.2

and this is a paragraph on page 18 of my essay:

  • Stalin’s death in 1953 helped the Korean War to reach a quick armistice3

Then the footnotes on page 5 should be:

1. Luthi, L. M., The Sino-Soviet Split: Cold War in the communist world, Princeton University Press, 2008, pp. 36.

2. Ibid., p. 36

 

and the footnote on page 18 should be:

3. Luthi, p.36

 

In other words, once you've written the full reference in your footnote, there's no need to rewrite the whole thing if you use the source again in the later part of your essay. Ibid is used to denote that the source of that citation is exactly the same as the source from the citation right above it. On the other hand, for citation 3 you cannot use Ibid because the citation starts on a different page. So for citation 3, you just have to mention the name and the page number

 

In short, the answer to your questions are as followed:

Question 1: If you use APA style, then you've already cited it

Question 2: For APA style you cite exactly the same way; for Oxford style there might be some rules that you have to follow

 

In general, Oxford style is much more difficult to use because there are so many rules and stuff. In fact, I think that any referencing systems that cite stuff using footnotes are bad because the footnotes would look so messy. But anyway, I hope this post helped. If you need more information, feel free to ask or :google: 

Cheers :)

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Thank you very very much. This really helped a lot. By the way, I'm using MLA and even though, if i'm not mistaken, its not necessary to have footnotes, my supervisor wants me to put them in to be on the safer side due to plagiarism. 

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MLA style does not use footnotes. Footnotes do not exist in MLA. You can put notes at the end of your work, but they are not footnotes. They are simply notes explaining your sources. 

 

If you mention where your information came from in a paraphrase you only list the page number(s) in parenthesis at the end of the borrowed information.

 

If you ever need anyone to proof-read let me know! I would be happy to help you.

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