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    We are all a joke if you make 25k usd a month in high school.
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    Depends on how much you want to learn or what you're interested in. I just took the course so if you need any help with anything, let me know. Vector functions relate a lot to physics. For example, you can use a vector function to parametrize the trajectory of a particle (notably when the path is parabolic). You can use a line integral over a vector field to find the force done by a particle traversing the field. You can then go into conservative vector fields and the fundamental theorem for line integrals (the Gradient theorem). You can define flux (the amount of stuff passing through a surface) as a surface integral of a vector field. I believe flux integrals have an application in electromagnetism, but I'm not 100% sure. If you want, you can show how to evaluate these with the Gauss-Ostrogradsky theorem (the Divergence theorem). All of this is with integral calculus. On the differential calculus side, you can start defining tangent vectors, normal vectors, and binormal vectors to vector curves (curves in 3d space). From these you can derive the formulas for normal and tangent acceleration, if you wish. Two other useful properties of vector curves are curvature and torsion. Both of these uniquely define a vector curve up to rigid translation/rotation (this is called the fundamental theorem of curves). Also take a look at the Frenet-Serret equations, which show why this is the case. As an application, with curvature you can find the speed limit of car travelling along a path defined by a vector curve so that the car does not skid off. You can also find something called the osculating plane and the osculating circle, which give nice approximations to vector curves.
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    Hi BernOnFire, it is true that physics require less memorizing since all the formulas you need are all on the formula sheet. If you are not taking biology in DP, then it would be great if you could switch to physics to have a taste of it before next year. In my opinion, you don't really to study extra content to prepare for physics SL, because I had no prior knowledge in physics and I am still doing well in it. And it all depends on what your interest is. If you love biology more, then stay in biology. If you really want to prepare physics over the summer, then I suggest a website called Kognity. It is a paid online IB textbook. I found the content there being really accurate and helpful. I hope this helped
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    In the most recent five presidential elections, the winner has lost the popular vote twice. I wonder when America will take this as symptomatic of a problem with not only the Electoral College, but the entire basis of its milquetoast, capitalist democracy. In 2000, when Al Gore lost Florida by such a minute amount, despite a relatively convincing overall win, it was much more pronounced. Fast forward sixteen years and again, Hillary Clinton won the popular by close to 3 million votes, yet Donald Trump secured an electoral college landslide. The biggest question should have been - What is the purpose of continuing to use such a broken system? The problem should be self-evident. The Electoral College makes it so that a New Hampshire or Florida voter has objectively greater influence over the election result than a New Yorker or Californian - simply because they live in a different state. If this is construed as democratic, I think that word begins to lose its meaning. More broadly, as someone who identifies with far-left politics, the utter and spectacular failure of the Democratic Party to produce a real, bona fide left candidate in the general election should be seen as a microcosm for the absolute dearth of a united left worldwide. The alt-right is gaining significant momentum. Even here in Australia, prominent alt-right candidates like Pauline Hanson and Cory Bernardi have the loudest voices. The left has no such political champion. The closest thing I can think of is Jeremy Corbyn in the UK, who faces opposition from his own party. I fear that the alt-right might just contain to gain momentum and be normalised more and more. In my perspective, if the left does not organise and take action, I fear the social conditions of our worldwide society might begin to resemble the rise of fascism in the 1930s.
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    Your friend shouldn't buy a mother****ing IA in the first place? Maybe it's just me, but as someone who tries to put in a crap ton amount of effort into his work, people pulling stunts like that really rattles my nails. It depends on whether or not the IA has been published online e.g. if a google search can yield it, then it's published already and the IBO will know that it's not your friend's work. Get your friend to have the work tested via Turnitin to see how much "plagiarism" is present in the work. I don't know how your friend's school does it, but most schools have IAs due in March as they're sent off to the IBO during late March or early April. Which is enough time for him/her to put in about 5-8 hours of work that can ideally yield a decent, original, internal assessment.
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    This one happened recently. So, a bunch of kids found the exam online (it was a past paper.) They memorized the answers. On the day of the test, they were done in 1/2 hour. So, as they leave the room, they pass by the teacher's room whose exam they cheated on. Now, I'll tell you that while these kids may be intelligent grades-wise, they weren't the sharpest tool in the shed when it comes to common sense and street smarts. So, the ringleader starts talking about the exam and says "Yeah, the exam was sooo easy. Even if we hadn't found it online and memorized the answers, I would have gotten 100% " right in the front of the teacher. Another time, in the exam room, some one was trying to copy off my paper as I was waiting to hand it in. Here, all the grades write their exams at the same time in the gymnasium. So, the girl didn't realize that she was copying off the wrong exam. Wonder how that went for her Lastly, somebody was cheating off their phone and Siri activated.....and read out the question they were looking up. The teacher either couldn't figure out who it was or liked her enough to pretend that he couldn't tell it was her. Still, he confiscated all phones for the remainder of the exam...which he should have done BEFORE handing out the exam.
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    The claim made in the video is that "most New Testament scholars accept the empty tomb", which is unsurprising, because I'm pretty sure scholars of the New Testament are exclusively Christian. Of course they believe it happened! My question to you is, why do you accept the empty tomb? What other evidence do you have? One argument people make is that there are eyewitness accounts, set down in the Bible, that it happened. However, I'm going to give you another eyewitness account of a Viking raid on Lindisfarne in AD 793. This was in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, written by monks to document the year's events over the course of several hundred years: "This year came dreadful fore-warnings over the land of the Northumbrians, terrifying the people most woefully: these were immense sheets of light rushing through the air, and whirlwinds, and fiery, dragons flying across the firmament. These tremendous tokens were soon followed by a great famine: and not long after, on the sixth day before the ides of January in the same year, the harrowing inroads of heathen men made lamentable havoc in the church of God in Holy-island, by rapine and slaughter." In reality, dragons were probably not involved. Anyhow, my point is that eyewitnesses must be backed up with other, more reliable, evidence, before their claims can even be considered viable. Now, if we went over to Lindisfarne and discovered enormous dragon footprints on the beach, we might start taking the monks seriously. As there are none - and there is no other evidence for Jesus' resurrection - there is little reason to credit either claim. Setting aside the credibility issues, even if Jesus really had appeared to rise from the dead, there are plenty of more plausible explanations for why this could have been the case. Really, the most obvious is that Jesus was not actually dead when he was taken down from the cross (he had supporters who would definitely have tried to save him), so he was cared for in the cave. He made a couple of appearances to his closest followers, so they were suitably impressed, and lived out the rest of his life in seclusion, to avoid re-arrest by the Romans. I'm not saying that "my version" of the events actually happened, because I have no evidence for any of these claims whatsoever. But, my version of the story is just as good as yours: both fit the eyewitnesses' accounts. And mine is more plausible than arguing for a resurrection! It appears that your argument starts with the assumption Jesus rose from the dead, and then tries to fit the facts, which I don't consider very factual, around it. There is no logical path with which you can exclude all other possibilities, and prove Jesus was definitely (or even probably) resurrected.
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    See I feel 2009-16 is very good range to study from. That's at least 20 versions of the same paper (because of it was mostly 3 versions per year, recently it became only 2).What would be a better management of time is to redo some tricky problems and look for questions elsewhere for content outside the 2009 syllabus but in the 2016 syllabus. It may also be helpful to write your own questions. Questions from all the way from 2003 are no longer useful. They are not easier, but simply irrelevant to your preparation.
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    First of all, I just want to point out that the topic mentions "knowledge questions" (in plural), so it might be a good idea to tackle 2 to 3 knowledge questions in your essay. As for the question that you have come up with, I think you should try to make it a little bit clearer because I don't really understand what you are trying to investigate here. What do you mean by the "urge for pattern"? Are you trying to investigate whether it is justified to search for patterns in these AOKs? But then justified for what? for the discovery of new knowledge? Also it seems that you forget to take into account the second part of the question, the part about "whether the patterns exist or not". I think it is quite necessary to somehow incorporate this as part of the knowledge questions that you come up with. By the way, it might be a good idea to understand the context under which Michael Shermer talked about humans as pattern seeking animals. In case you haven't watched his TED talk yet, here is the link: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=b_6-iVz1R0o. One of the important points that he brought up was the type 1 and type 2 errors, which are when our pattern-seeking engine fails, either because we claim a nonexistent pattern (type 1) or because we fail to recognize a pattern when it is indeed real (type 2). Make sure you discuss these in your essay. By the way, type 1 and type 2 errors are extremely common in the field of statistics, which is one of the main tools to produce new knowledge in many areas of knowledge, including the social sciences (like economics). Lastly, are you sure you want to investigate the title using arts as an AOK? I mean, naturally, you can talk about patterns in abstract visual arts. But still, I find it difficult to argue for anything if you choose arts as an AOK for this title. Just my opinion though. Good luck!
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    There is no such thing as a "good" combination, only the good combination specific to you. Choose subjects that you like the most, are best at, or are most relevant to what you want to study in university. Remember, certain universities and/or programs may have specific course requirements, so if you have an idea of what you want to do in the future, I suggest you go do some research
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    Imagine you had all the Hogwarts students, all the wizards, doing all their magicky stuff, and then there was the IB program. And all the other students would be like chilling playing quidditch or some **** and then a group of IB kids are just furiously studying and one of them is having a mini panic attack because deadlines, and his classmates are all like "don't worry you can finish it by tonight" and then he goes "WITH WHAT??? A QUILL??" and they all shut up because everyone knows his hand will fall off before he finishes the paper with that kind of workload. Then this wizard kid who heard everything shows up and offers to bewitch the guys quill so it can like write faster or write as he speaks, and has like auto-correct.
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    For your specific problem, a hint: try expressing everything in terms of ln (change of base formula). As for your main question, practice definitely helps, as you point out. In terms of what I do, I usually attempt to express everything in terms of one single base, and then just experiment around with simplifying everything using the log laws as appropriate. Sometimes, you may find that it helps to 'reverse' the log laws. For example, you may rewrite logc(a) + logc(b) = logc(ab), or b*logc(a) = logc(ab). Overall though, the main thing to do is to just practice, especially using difficult log and exponential equations, and don't give up on the problems, even if you really just want to look at the answers. I've found that I learn best if I just keep going until I finally get the answer independently. For exponential equations, the only thing I can really say is to become familiar using a combination of both log and exponential notation. Sometimes one is more convenient than the other, depending on the situation.
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    My classmate sent me this for tomorrows exam and I found it to be most helpful, so I wanted to share it with you guys A good way is to discuss the following for both prose and poetry: · The five W’s – What? Who? When? Where? Why? · Ambiguities · Diction · Imagery · Tone · Mood · Structure · Pattern · Voice · Syntax Prose-specific: · Plot · Narrative point of view · Characterization · Chronology (Use of time) · Setting · Paragraphing Poetry-specific: · Layout · Stanzas · Metre · Sound Organization of Time: 30 minutes – Read the passage, over and over again until you feel confident about the passage and have absorbed its contents. Then analysis and structure your commentary with a thesis statement. Exemplary Thesis Statement: A’s work B shows C through the following devices D to achieve overall effect(s) E. Outline: Introduction – Opener containing author and title. Discuss the main issues of your commentary, e.g. devices, in such a way that you are “attempting” to understand the meaning of the work (e.g. the overall effect). Do not present yourself in such a manner that you seem entirely self-assured in the introduction, but rather you have noticed something and plan to explore it further through the commentary. Conclude with the thesis statement. Literary devices #1 (e.g. Structure, Diction, Imagery) – Open with the general intent of the paragraph – e.g. A uses archaic diction to rectify the Victorian setting. Then, discuss the evidence for this, showing the effects of these devices and the author’s intention with this. The closing sentence should present what device you were exploring and the overall effect you feel this had for the passage, and in its heightening of the “overall effect and intentions” of the passage. Repeat this for every group of literary devices, mentioning all the relevant devices and aspects (see previous lists). Conclusion – state that extent of the effect’s effectiveness. Then state the devices that contributed. Then conclude with a clincher. 90 minutes – Write, using proof from the text, in accordance with your previously made outline. Discuss the effects of the devices and show “professional” personal interpretation. Ensure that your vocabulary is eloquent and coherently verbose. Tips: 1. The structure of your commentary is probably the single most important way of gaining (and losing marks). Write a strong Introduction and Conclusion (in a similar format as previously described) and ensure that every body paragraph has a strong opener with the intent of the paragraph and a clincher which emphasizes the addition to meaning that the devices provide. This is incredibly easy to do - but if forgotten, it will make a difference in your grade. 2. ‘So what?’ mentality – every single device you mention should have you thinking “So what?” what does this device do for the passage? How does it contribute to the overall effect or meaning? This will strengthen your discussion of the effects (key for HL). If you cannot mention the effect or the significance DO NOT mention the device! 3. Do not seem definitive, rather seem to “struggle” – use words like ‘perhaps’, ‘seems to’, etc, to ensure that you do not say “This is what the poem is, take it or leave it.” The examiner has most definitely read the passage well and will not be pleased to see a butchering of the text, which is definitive (and most likely pompous in their eyes). Also, this will allow you to point out the text’s ambiguities and describe their significance. 4. Use ‘the reader,’ ‘the audience,’ and possibly even ‘we’ to reinforce the reader. 5. Do not state the obvious – show your thought process and analysis. Example, in commenting on a passage from Life of Pi, where the author mentions the tiger and child are scared: “link 1: the boat is sinking and tiger is too (obviously) link 2: the tiger is scared (clearly implied by text) link 3: fear is an emotion, therefore the tiger is experiencing human emotions (low level thinking) link 4: if the tiger is experincing human emotions, the author is trying to humanize the tiger (slightly higher level thinking) link 5: why is the author humanizing the tiger? perhaps the tiger is supposed to be a metaphor for a concept (higher level thinking) link 6: what is the concept and what are the author's reasons? (thesis statement) link 7: since these emotions are humans, there is personification going on (more higher level thinking). An example of an explication written for a timed exam (non-IB specific): The Fountain Fountain, fountain, what do you say Singing at night alone? "It is enough to rise and fall Here in my basin of stone." But are you content as you seem to be So near the freedom and rush of the sea? "I have listened all night to its laboring sound, It heaves and sags, as the moon runs round; Ocean and fountain, shadow and tree, Nothing escapes, nothing is free." —Sara Teasdale (American, l884-1933) As a direct address to an inanimate object "The Fountain" presents three main conflicts concerning the appearance to the observer and the reality in the poem. First, since the speaker addresses an object usually considered voiceless, the reader may abandon his/her normal perception of the fountain and enter the poet's imaginative address. Secondly, the speaker not only addresses the fountain but asserts that it speaks and sings, personifying the object with vocal abilities. These acts imply that, not only can the fountain speak in a musical form, but the fountain also has the ability to present some particular meaning ("what do you say" (1)). Finally, the poet gives the fountain a voice to say that its perpetual motion (rising and falling) is "enough" to maintain its sense of existence. This final personification fully dramatizes the conflict between the fountain's appearance and the poem's statement of reality by giving the object intelligence and voice. The first strophe, four lines of alternating 4- and 3-foot lines, takes the form of a ballad stanza. In this way, the poem begins by suggesting that it will be story that will perhaps teach a certain lesson. The opening trochees and repetition stress the address to the fountain, and the iamb which ends line 1 and the trochee that begins line 2 stress the actions of the fountain itself. The response of the fountain illustrates its own rise and fall in the iambic line 3, and the rhyme of "alone" and "stone" emphasizes that the fountain is really a physical object, even though it can speak in this poem. The second strophe expands the conflicts as the speaker questions the fountain. The first couplet connects the rhyming words "be" and "sea" these connections stress the question, "Is the fountain content when it exists so close to a large, open body of water like the ocean?" The fountain responds to the tempting "rush of the sea" with much wisdom (6). The fountain's reply posits the sea as "laboring" versus the speaker's assertion of its freedom; the sea becomes characterized by heavily accented "heaves and sags" and not open rushing (7, 8). In this way, the fountain suggests that the sea's waters may be described in images of labor, work, and fatigue; governed by the moon, these waters are not free at all. The "as" of line 8 becomes a key word, illustrating that the sea's waters are not free but commanded by the moon, which is itself governed by gravity in its orbit around Earth. Since the moon, an object far away in the heavens, controls the ocean, the sea cannot be free as the speaker asserts. The poet reveals the fountain's intelligence in rhyming couplets which present closed-in, epigrammatic statements. These couplets draw attention to the contained nature of the all objects in the poem, and they draw attention to the final line's lesson. This last line works on several levels to address the poem's conflicts. First, the line refers to the fountain itself; in this final rhymed couplet is the illustration of the water's perpetual motion in the fountain, its continually recycled movement rising and falling. Second, the line refers to the ocean; in this respect the water cannot escape its boundary or control its own motions. The ocean itself is trapped between landmasses and is controlled by a distant object's gravitational pull. Finally, the line addresses the speaker, leaving him/her with an overriding sense of fate and fallacy. The fallacy here is that the fountain presents this wisdom of reality to defy the speaker's original idea that the fountain and the ocean appear to be trapped and free. Also, the direct statement of the last line certainly addresses the human speaker as well as the human reader. This statement implies that we are all trapped or controlled by some remote object or entity. At the same time, the assertion that "Nothing escapes" reflects the limitations of life in the world and the death that no person can escape. Our own thoughts are restricted by our mortality as well as by our limits of relying on appearances. By personifying a voiceless object, the poem presents a different perception of reality, placing the reader in the same position of the speaker and inviting the reader to question the conflict between appearance and reality, between what we see and what we can know. SUGGESTIONS FOR IMPROVEMENT: The writer observes and presents many of the most salient points of the short poem, but she could indeed organize the explication more coherently. To improve this explication, the writer could focus more on the speaker's state of mind. In this way, the writer could explore the implications of the dramatic situation even further: why does the speaker ask a question of a mute object? With this line of thought, the writer could also examine more closely the speaker's movement from perplexity (I am trapped but the waters are free) to a kind of resolution (the fountain and the sea are as trapped as I am). Finally, the writer could include a more detailed consideration of rhythm, meter, and rhyme. Hope this helps, best regards from Teresa in Iceland
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    Today IB a nerd, but tomorrow IB your boss I got bars and max my IB IA marks I'm a spiritual lyrical miracle Surviving on 4 hours of sleep is what I consider refreshing minimum
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    Ive been in the IB for two years now, and I almost failed my classes last semester, so I know where you are coming from. You just need to make sure that you prioritise everything correctly, and manage your time wisely. Learn how you learn best, and how you focus best. Another thing you can do is take 30 minutes at night and meditate. It will really calm you down and help you concentrate. I also know that it can be difficult to ask for help, so set up meetings with each of your teachers, and have a discussion about where you are struggling, and ask them for advice on how they would suggest you deal with the workload. Just remember to breathe, it'll all be okay!
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    Everything is formally due to IB in April of the year of your exams. However, schools have internal deadlines that you have to meet. So, your best bet is to ask your coordinator when your school's deadlines are.
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    I mean you have to take 3 HLs regardless and there's really no easy 3HL combo unless you are bilingual and take 2 language HLs. If you are bad at writing, History HL can pose a problem because the exams are essay-based, not multiple choice/true-false questions. The course emphasizes argumentative and persuasive writing. I haven't heard many people considering Biology HL to be harder than History HL, but Chemistry HL and History HL are about equal difficulty. I think (hope) you will. High school physics is about turning principles into equations and solve for the unknown.
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    In the US law school is a graduate school, so your IB subjects won't matter at all, since you will have done an undergraduate degree before applying to do law.
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    It strictly depends on the country, so without you letting us know where you want to apply, we can't help. Always best to do some research on the university websites.
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    @ILoveJesus It is probably insignificant to stand here and debate about the historical veracity of the resurrection story. I think if you make a claim on the grounds of "X historian agrees with me and therefore Y is true," you are making an appeal to the authority of said person - and fallaciously so. As has been accurately presaged by previous commenters, the historical views about the Bible are extremely inconclusive. I point to obvious gaps in our knowledge - no tomb has ever been located/conclusively determined to be where Jesus Christ was entombed, there is an obvious dearth of non-biblical historical texts recording a Jesus figure, as mere examples for why I think strong doubt should be held as to the resurrection story. In any case, it is not the burden of proof for an atheist to disprove the Biblical account, it is on the claimant - you. The broader issue with this entire argument is that Christianity is inherently unfalsifiable. There is no way that conclusively and objectively, a person is able to go about rejecting Christianity or the resurrection story, as it relies on caveats such as, "Believe or Die" and "faith is required" to supplement a lack of objective facts. It is purposeless to even engage in objective discourse, because the material you are debating about is inherently not so.
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    The solar power received at difference latitude is different. At more polar latitudes, the same amount of sunlight is spread over a greater area. It's not exactly the derivative since derivative means at a single point but the power depends on the area.
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    In the description of the video you linked, it says that it's taken from the debate between Craig and Spong, so I went ahead and looked up the original debate on youtube. But wow, that debate is almost 2 hours long, and i simply don't have time to go through it. You can find Craig's argument in the original video at 1:03:00, and Spong's reply at 1:11:08. Basically, Spong argued that Craig's scholars are not very good among the academia, and that Spong also has lots of scholars supporting him too. The ironic thing here is that John Shelby Spong is a Christian too, and a bishop no less!!! This made me realize that the debate about the resurrection of Jesus is actually more common among the Christian theologians; people don't usually see this kind of issue popping up on the debates between atheism/science and religions. In any case, if you read this comprehensive wikipedia article, it seems quite clear that there's no real consensus among the theologians about whether the resurrection of Jesus was real or was just a metaphor in the Bible. So perhaps Christians should sort this out among themselves first, before using it as an "evidence" for the existence of the christian God? Saying that "it is highly probable that Jesus rose from the dead" is premature, considering that there are many Christians who think otherwise, at least according to what it says in that wikipedia article. By the way, just for fun, here's a short video showing Christopher Hitchens "mocking" the illogicality about the resurrection interpretation (sorry for the super lame music haha): https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=R2GM_g7VCJI
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    Hey there! It's actually a great book and has a lot of potential to possibly even take it further. The content - guides, recipes, tips, ingredients - is very good. My only piece of advice is that if you improve the format of the text/images and the design of it in programs like Photoshop, it would be amazing Good job though, that's a great PP product, you should be proud!
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    Just because he is democratically elected, it doesn't mean he can go against the US Constitution, regardless of his campaign promises. Ok, it's not really fair to compare the first three times this has happened since they all happened in the 1800s; we don't have the complete records as to how the reaction of the people was. Nor were the common people that invested in politics as they would be today. The most recent example of this is George W. Bush vs Al Gore. It is incorrect to say people didn't care that George Bush lost the popular vote. There was a massive outcry at the time George W. Bush was declared the winner of 2000 Presidential Election; people protested at his inauguration and they did it again in 2005 when he was re-elected.
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    There were certainly protests against Trump way before the election happened. Have you forgotten about how his rallies were cancelled because of the protests? Or how we would hear about him kicking someone out of the rally if they held up an anti-Trump sign? And please don't isolate the left-wings and liberals for all the protests, there are many conservatives and right-wing people who disagree with Trump and his policies.
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    I think all of these options are viable- it's strictly dependent on the methodology and what you exactly want to do with the data you've gathered.
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    All very interesting! The procedure need not to be 100% original but all analysis needs to be. You are however expected to properly cite all references. You should strive for a very solid understanding of your experiment, as opposed to try really hard to come up with a fully original procedure.
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    In Chemistry HL, calculation is only about 30%. If your state gives the opportunity, you should take both, one in IB the other one in a summer or night or weekend class. Eventually for dietitian you will have to take both biology and chemistry in future studies. I would recommend Chemistry HL and biology outside of IB. Conceptual understanding is a major component of Chemistry HL so definitely be prepared.
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    It is necessary for you to complete all IAs and course components to get the diploma. You have to do the presentation.
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    NO. >:( And your meme's amazing haha
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    To what extent is this due to the lack of TOK that day? How I felt when I signed up for Maths HL..
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    If you think those IB subjects waste time, try comparing them to your local curriculum. I don't know about Lebanon, but here in NSW Australia the alternative is the HSC, which is quite a bit worse. The subjects are Australia-centric, not interested in the rest of the world, and involve basically just memorisation. The only way you can do well is if you take maths and science subjects, humanities are scaled down so much that it's hard to succeed against the people who simply memorise essays and how to solve questions. IB forces you to be at least a little bit creative by coming up with IA projects, an EE topic, and lots of the exams are unseen or difficult to prepare for (like language A paper 1 and B papers), so it's about your analysis skills, not your memorisation skills. Yes, IB is hard, but real life is a whole lot harder...
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    @talalrulez, I understand your viewpoint here, knowing that you're a religious person. But would you agree that this idea – that god tries to enforce an objective morality upon us – is based entirely on faith? I mean even if there is such a thing as an objective morality, how can you definitively prove with evidence and logical arguments that it's god who gave us these moral rules. We can't just say "objectivity requires an objectivity giver" without falling into some sort of logical fallacies such as the god-of-the-gaps or the argument from ignorance. I know that I'm joining the discussion a little bit late, and much of what I'm gonna say in this post has already been mentioned by other posters, but I just want to shout out what I have in my mind anyway. @ILoveJesus, I think most people would reject your 1st premise and have a serious problem with your 2nd one. For premise 1, you said that "if god doesn't exist, then it's all just a matter of human opinion that holds no objective values". But isn't that an argument from ignorance/incredulity? Just because you can't think of any other reasons for objective morality doesn't mean such reasons don't exist. How can humans have objective morality (if such a thing exists) is a difficult question and arguably have no definitive answers. One might approach this from different perspectives: from philosophy as in Kant's categorical imperative, from biology through Richard Dawkins' selfish genes idea, or from the human rights perspective which may argue that our conscience came from the experience with the atrocities that happened during WWII. Still, whatever the ultimate reasons are, it's just not convincing to simply state that objectivity is an evidence for god without giving more thoughts to endless of other possibilities. Moreover, saying that "without god, all we have is human opinion" is completely unfair. If you take any moral philosophy class in university, you'll notice that most discussions there are based on reasons, logic, and facts, rather than just "human opinion". One way that you can prove your 1st premise is to show us how God communicates these objective moral values to humans. Of course, the obvious way might be through the religious books (Bible, Quran, …). But the problem with these books is that they contain so many moral contradictions, and none of their moral claims can be qualified as objective morality. "You shall not steal", well guess what, if your family is starving to death, stealing might actually be the right thing to do. "Homosexuality is morally wrong", needless to say, this is just a wrong statement, especially nowadays when many countries have accepted gay marriages. "Killing an innocent is wrong" might sound objective at first, but only if the world would be this simple. In reality, it's very difficult to judge who is the innocent one (here, I'm thinking about the US drone strikes, which targeted the terrorists, but also have killed many innocent civilians during the process). Let me also use the famous trolley problem as an example here. Say one side of the track is your family, and the other side of the track is an innocent stranger. Would you deflect the train so that it kills your family instead of the innocent stranger? a deontologist might think otherwise because to him, saving one's family is a moral obligation. All of these examples are to show that religious books don't have any set of objective morality, not to mention some of the immorality encouraged by the books, like stoning people to death because of adultery, etc Another way that you can prove your 1st premise is to say that god is an incredibly powerful being and thus can magically put objective morality into our head without us knowing. Fair enough. But then why didn't god do this sooner? so that humanity can avoid having to experience so much killings in the past, so that the Holocaust wouldn't have taken place, and Jesus wouldn't have to sacrifice himself for the sins of people. Here, you might argue that god gives us objective morality, but does not force it upon us because god also wants humans to have free-will. Fine, fair enough. But doesn't that require a huge amount of faith in order to believe that to be true? How can you prove that god gave us objective morality without taking a leap of faith? Since your argument is formulated as a logical syllogism, you cannot use faith as a tool to validate the argument. Now, much of the discussions in the previous posts have been about the 2nd premise – a debate about whether morality is objective or subjective. On this issue, I have to say that I'm completely neutral. But that doesn't matter because, as @azara and @tim9800 have rightly pointed out, whether objective morality exists or not, the 1st premise is still wrong since there is no connection between the existence of objective morality and the existence of god. @ILoveJesus, the thing that troubles me most about your argument is that you're claiming as if you've definitively proven that some moral values are objective in nature. When the other posters asked you for proof, you simply stated that "human's conscience and moral experience tell us why the Holocaust is objectively wrong". But isn't that a contradiction? because human's conscience and moral experience are influenced by our subjective self. If you disagree, then you must be claiming that human's conscience is objective. But here lies another problem. Earlier you said that some (if not most) moral issues are subjective in nature. But then how can our objective conscience lead us to a subjective conclusion for these moral issues? In other words, if our moral experience and conscience are objective and absolute, then from your point of view, it follows that all moral issues must be objective in nature. This is to show that using human conscience as a proof for an objective morality is incorrect and totally not convincing.
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    While in perfect economic terms, it does make some degree of logical sense to lower taxes on the rich it fails to work in the real world. The U.S. has done this twice that I can think of, once in the 20's and once in the 80's. The deregulation in the 20's led to the stock market crash and the great depression. The one in the 80's is colloquially called Reaganomics. It's trickle down theory, exactly what you describe (lower taxes on the upper class that will benefit the everybody). 30+ years later we are still waiting for that trickle down. The problem, in my opinion, is that this form of economics requires the capitalist to act not out of self-interest. A lack of taxes allows the capitalist no incentive to put money back into his company in the form of paying workers, etc. Starting in about the 30's to the 70's U.S. tax rates were high on the upper class. The result? We built an interstate, sent a man to the moon, increased the mass production of household items we take for granted today and other stuff. In short, life was pretty good. The higher tax rates forced companies to invest back into their company and hire workers. Also, the additional tax revenue allowed for building things like the interstate system.
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    I took the ESS exam this past May and got a 7. My main study tool was the Oxford course companion. Two weeks before the papers, I began to carefully read through the companion, taking notes on on the case studies and definitions. In these two weeks and throughout the course in general, I relied a lot on Quizlet and the YouTube channels Dan Dubay and NicheScience. Quizlet helped me a lot with definitions, which always, always show up on the papers. For example, here is a link to a Quizlet for the glossary terms found in the syllabus for the course: https://quizlet.com/_1dr29i. The YouTube videos give you break from constantly reading, but still allow you to absorb some of the material. And, be sure to do past papers! Hope this helps!
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    Okay, so I found a bunch of notes I took when my teachers were giving us IA tips and format..etc. Some of the below I had to copy of the board, so you may find these in the books. So, Biology IAs should follow this general format: DESIGN 1)Research Question 2)Hypothesis/Predictions 3)Variables 4)Apparatus 5)Method/procedure DCP 1)Collected data 2)Data processing 3)Data presentation CE 1)Conclusion 2)Evaluation Design Research question: This should be a clear focused question that says exactly what you are investigating. It shouldn't be too long and it must include the dependent and independent variables. Eg. What is the effect of pH on the activity rate of salivary amylase? Dependent variable: activity rate Independent variable: pH Hypothesis: This is a paragraph or two where you explain your research question. You are going to say something like: "Salivary Amylase is a an enzyme that digests starch into di- and monosaccharides. Since it's a salivary amylase, the enzyme works best at an alkaline pH of 7, in other words, the optimum pH is 7. At this pH, the rate of amylase activity will be at it's highest. A pH that is much lower (very acidic) or much higher (very alkaline) will denature the enzyme permanently (specifically the active site), and the enzyme can't function anymore. The activity of the enzyme will decrease as we increase or decrease pH." You may also want to include a graph to show this if this possible. Variables: A list or a table that include: -Independent variable: this is the variable you're changing. In the example above, the pH. -Dependent variable: this is what changes when you change the independent variable. Eg. Activity rate. -Controlled variables: these are all the other variables that must be kept the same in order to get an accurate results. For example, Temperature, pressure..etc. Apparatus: This is the list where you include everything you are going to use. Make sure you don't forget anything. My teacher always told me to include a diagram of the apparatus, so you may want to add that too. When listing the apparatus, be specific: 1)'A beaker' wont work, you have to specify the type and the volume. Same for any other apparatus of this sort. 2)When listing chemical substances like enzymes or starch solutions. Include the volume and the concentration. 3)For Solid substances used, include the mass in 'g' 4)When mentioning the thermometer, you may want to say it goes from -2C to 100C just to be specific. Method: I always prefer the method being in a list format rather than a paragraph. It makes it much easier to read and understand. I would advise you to not use the first person. For example if you want to say "I will measure 50ml of starch solution into a beaker" you should say "Measure 50ml of starch solution into a beaker" Please make sure you include every single step, don't miss one because it seems like an 'obvious' step! Also make sure that your method controls the controlled variables and allows the collection of raw data. After finishing your design, take a look at the table below (from the syllabus) to make sure you didn't miss anything: Data Collection and Processing (DCP) Collected data: This is normally given in one or more tables. Make sure your table is clear and easy to read and follow. Trust me, it makes a difference. Do not forget to include the units at the top of each column in brackets and the error! Here's an example: Data processing: Data processing is where they want you to do something with the data. Find an average, do one of the hypothesis test, calculate the standard deviation...etc. It normally depends on the experiment. Errors/uncertainties: This is the calculation of the % error in your experiment which you're going to discuss in CE. The uncertainty of each apparatus should be printed on it. If it's not, then the uncertainty is the half the smallest division. For example, a ruler that with 0.1cm division will have an error of +/- 0.05cm. Data presentation: This presentation should be of the raw data and the processed data if possible. Bar graphs and line graphs are one of the best way to present a data in most cases. A pie chart or a scatter graph may also be used. When adding the graph, make sure it has a title, labelled axis and legends. If you are for example investigating something at two different environments or situations, you should have a graph for each and then a third graph with the both, to show better comparison. In most cases, you are going to have to do at least 3 or 4 trials, include the graphs for each, then a final one of the average results. When appropriate include the uncertainties in the graph. Please make sure the graph/chart is suitable for your type of data before using it. Here are examples: Bar Graph: Pie Chart: Once again, take a look at the criteria for a last check: Conclusion and Evaluation (CE) Conclusion: The first point about the conclusion is that it should directly relate to the hypothesis. In other words, your conclusion must restate and discuss the hypothesis. You are not going to say why the results weren't accurate in this section. You're going to do discuss your results. Does it support the hypothesis? Were you predictions correct? Make sure you mention them again. I read this in one of the documents it got, and many people make this mistake: when talking about a hypothesis you're talking about whether the results support or refute the hypothesis, not prove the hypothesis. In your conclusion, make sure you discuss the graphs, the charts..the data processing..etc. Evaluation and improvement methods I would organize this part in this way: 1st paragraph: the weaknesses and limitations. In other words, all the possible reasons you could think of as to why your % error is too big (if that applies), why you results didn't perfectly support the hypothesis, why you results weren't accurate...etc. So basically, you're going to talk about all the weaknesses in your design and the effects these weaknesses had on the results. When mentioning the possible errors, I suggest doing it in bullet points because like I said they're much easier to read and understand. 2nd paragraph: improvements: This is basically the "The errors above could be avoided next time by.....". Then just start suggesting all the things you would do differently next time to get better results, for example: 1)Repeat the experiments more than x times. 2)Control temperature and pressure more carefully. 3)Try to reduce human errors. 4)Use more accurate apparatus for volume measurements. and so on. Criteria table: EDIT: Criteria tables added.
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    ...when, after helping an old lady accross the street you request she sign a CAS form.
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    Skip to... Paper 1 Paper 2 WL1 Literary features Useful Links (cribbed off sweetnsimple786, thanks!) World Literature 1 Marking Criteria World Literature 2 Marking Criteria Other Links (posted by Julie) Literary Analysis and Writing Technical Points Tips for Writing A1 Unseen Commentaries (Paper 1) 1. Learn how YOU work best Unless you've sussed it out for yourself already, your aim throughout the two years of IB should be to establish how you best approach this sort of essay. Everybody prefers to deal with it differently and has their own style -- the ultimate aim for anybody is to produce an essay with a cohesive, well-supported argument, a sound structure, doesn't skip any major points and can be completed within the allotted time. Simple, right? There are two major areas in which people differ. The first is planning. How much time do you personally need to plan? Some people like to invest a massive amount of their time into it (e.g. for a 2 hour paper at HL they might spend half an hour or more planning it) and some people much less time, for instance 5 or 10 minutes. Obviously some has to take place as you have to read the poem and formulate an argument; whether you then choose to go straight ahead and start writing (usually to maximise the amount you can write down and give yourself leeway to change things) or whether you like to plan out exactly what you're going to say when (to make sure you have a good structure and are focussed), it's not a big deal. You have to work out for yourself what the optimum sort of time is going to be. The second area is the style in which you deal with the text. This can either be done by theme (and incidentally tends to pair well with somebody who plans a lot) in which major points of discussion are stuck into dedicated paragraphs, or line-by-line which is literally dealing with the text in a linear fashion and therefore tends to require a lot less forethought. Each of these has its weaknesses -- for the former you can easily find yourself spotting something you should've discussed earlier but will then need to break your structure in order to include. You're less likely to come across things as you're writing, can write comparatively 'shallow' essays (i.e. less deep analysis) and of course you do need to plan things like crazy. An acronym often related to this is SCASI (Setting/Character/Action/Style/Ideas), where you do roughly a section of your essay on each of those. Weaknesses related to the line-by-line are largely time management (you end up writing a lot more) and making sure you pick up on overarching themes as well as structuring it in a cohesive manner. Use any practice commentaries you do to test these out! Which do you prefer? More importantly, with which of these methods/time distributions do you get the best results grades-wise? You might be at an extreme or somewhere in the middle, but you're going to have a style which suits you and it's extremely important you're secure and confident in your personal approach before you enter the exam. On a final note, a lot of teachers will tell you that there's only one way to write a commentary. This is wrong. I've seen 7s with good employment of both these styles and the examiners will reward essays which fulfil the marking criteria, not your teacher's favourite way of doing it. 2. Don't pick between poetry/prose in advance This might seem reasonably obvious, but there is a considerable chance that the poem/prose which comes up will not be to your liking. With the poetry you might not understand it... and with the prose you might not really see what there is to write. There are exceptions to this rule, some people know what they're doing and can go for their favourite every time, but as a general rule if you don't know 100% that you are an exception (and you'll know, trust me!) my advice is to practice both. Don't pick prose or poetry prior to seeing what they are like, that's a pretty crazy tactic because you're taking away your own options! 3. Have a line of argument This gives your essay purpose, direction and is something for you to constantly refer back to. It's easier to do an analysis if you treat the whole essay as building up the case for WHY your analysis is correct. Imagine that you've announced "this poem is about X and now I'm going to show you why". This way you'll analyse, you'll give examples and you'll have cohesion because your essay will keep returning to the same central points. At no point in the exam should you be sitting scratching your head wondering where on earth to go next. You have an introduction (your declaration and brief overview of why you believe X to be the case) and a conclusion (briefly how you believe you've proved it to be so). Excellent stuff, having a line of argument. 4. Make sure your argument makes sense If I am correct, in the USA and some other places, they call an argument a thesis statement. Whatever. Call it what you like, it is extremely important that you project your own 'vision' or interpretation of the poetry/prose. What this does NOT under any circumstances mean is that you see one bit of a line, think "ooo I like that idea!" and start inventing things or deciding that the word 'interpretation' is some kind of arty excuse for making mystical-sounding comments. World Literature is an analytical subject at heart, and whilst there's no technical right and wrong in that several versions of something can be correct, there's definitely a wrong and the word for that is misinterpretation. You do not want to misinterpret the whole thing. Some people are lucky and will never misinterpret because it comes naturally to them; for other people, no worries, there is a litmus test. Decide what you think the main theme of the poem/prose is and then with your decision in mind, and prior to writing anything, go through the whole text and think at every point "does my interpretation DEFINITELY make sense in light of this section?". Sometimes you might find something contradictory -- for instance a note of joy in a poem which is otherwise quite depressing. In that case, your argument can no longer be that the whole poem is centred around bitterness (or whatever, I'm making this up) but rather you'll have to alter your argument to the poem being about the randomness of fate (because on reflection it turns out that the contrast between the depression and the joy makes this the message you receive). Clearly this is an invented example, but the point I'm trying to get at is that the former interpretation wouldn't fit the whole text. The second interpretation DOES fit the whole text. Always make sure that your main line of argument fits everything, or your entire essay will be out. 5. Use language you understand Okay I'm not going to lie, some people say some really stupid things. If you don't know what a word means, don't know how a phrase is used (and this happens to some native speakers as well as non-native speakers) for the love of whatever higher being may or may not be out there… don't do it! Please. If you've been exposed to a lot of phrases around you in everyday life, and read a lot of books, you'll probably find this kind of thing like second nature to you, and you're very lucky. If not, please don't try and impress anybody. It's better to use straight forward sentences and make sure you're definitely getting your point across. You will not be rewarded for speaking with the kind of Elizabethan flourish which would've made Shakespeare proud of his handiwork. They're going to be more impressed by the whole thing making sense than by you using verbs in conjunction with the wrong prepositions etc. 6. PEE! Also go to the toilet before the exam. I always assume everybody has heard of this; if you haven't, listen up! PEE is the best way to approach anything. Point, Example, Explanation! Live by the code of PEE and you should never make a crappy point (because if it's crappy hopefully you'll realise your explanation sucks and therefore not write it) and never make a point without explaining it (without that extra E, PEE just wouldn't be the amusing urination-based acronym we all know and love, would it?). To break it down with a (flippant) example: Point --> Seamus Heaney (a poet) uses potato-based puns to enforce his love of potatoes Example --> He says: "Without potatoes/I would not be rooted in this life" (yes this is made up) Explanation --> The word "rooted" refers back both to the author's roots and also to the nature of potatoes themselves which are root vegetables. He also uses a very effective sentence structure to emphasise the significance of potatoes by making them the start of the phrase, the verb in the middle and then with "life" as the last word in the phrase, the stresses fall in such a way that the two seem linked…. etc etc etc. It's amazing what you can bull**** really 7. Manage your time wisely Okay I mentioned this with planning earlier. Know when you're going to have done stuff by and keep an eye on the clock. An essay is not an essay without a conclusion and all of its contents, and these things cannot be put into place if you run out of time! When I used to do my A1 essays I went line-by-line and said more or less to leave 5 mins at the end to conclude have 5 mins at the start to plan and intend to be halfway through the poem by the time I got halfway through my time. Never failed to finish an essay with this (very non-technical but useful) tactic. Don't be caught out. 8. Make points, don't score points! (aka don't drop in literary features if you don't know what you're doing) I wrote that mostly because it sounds catchy, but basically what I mean is that you should realise you get marks for making points. Not for using special words. Obviously you want to use some special words throughout (and by special words I mean the World Lit lingo: alliteration, metaphors, caesuras etc etc) but they should be coincidental with you making a point. I used to fit them in as part of the second E in my PEE. When explaining why my point was valid I would casually mention that it was mightily effective on account of the simile and so on. In other words, they can be slotted in casually. What you should avoid is point scoring, which is kinda like name dropping only using special words. Just because you know a word to describe a literary feature and what it means, it doesn't mean it's always going to be there! The major victim of people trying to point score is "irony". In actual fact, irony is not all that pervasive in literature. It crops up every now and again, but not particularly frequently and definitely not in 80%+ of things. I'm not going to bother inventing a statistic for how often it does crop up, but just remember it's not everywhere. DO NOT say something is 'an example of irony' unless you A) are sure it's definitely an example of irony and that you know what irony is B) are willing to explain how it's an example and why this is effective This goes for any special word. If you know something is effective but don't know the special word for it (and often there isn't one), there's no harm in explaining it out. It is better to do this than to invent things or to go out of your way to include literary features just for the sake of them being there! If something if effective, just explain why. You don't need a technical term for it every time, and if you see something you know the technical term for but it isn't really effective... don't go out of your way to mention it. Tips for Writing A1 Essay Responses (Paper 2) 1. Look at past questions and use them to break down your texts for revision If you look through past paper questions, you'll spot that the sorts of questions you receive will always be about generalised things. Off the top of my head, things like Setting, Character, Beginnings and Endings, Death, Love, Chronology etc. all tend to crop up with reassuring regularity. So, this is the way in which you should approach your texts when revising them. Remember that in the actual thing you'll come across one of these sorts of questions and you will either have to sit and think for the very first time of exactly how the minor characters influenced the play (...for example...) or you'll have handily thought of it all before. Hopefully you'll agree that the second scenario is much better than the first. My advice is therefore to go through all of your texts and pick out the main points to do with these themes. Not only will you familiarise yourself with the texts in the process, but you should also find that a lot of the points can be easily recycled into your actual essay in the exam and that's the aim. Get a piece of paper, head it up with the theme you're looking at and then divide it into columns. Think of a point from one of the texts and simultaneously whether that same point can be made in another text -- i.e. compare and contrast. You might draw a blank, or you might think "well they DO mention the minor characters, but they play more of a role in narrating the life of the main characters than in providing any of the action..." = et voila, a contrast! That kind of thing. 2. Prepare all of your texts Do not favouritise texts. You will note that the questions ask you to write about 2 or more of the works you have studied. So yes, technically you only have to learn about 2. What, however, if the question in the exam asks you about Death, and nobody dies in one of the texts. You'll be stuffed. Unless you can see forward in time to know what the question will be, don't do just 2 of the texts. Do all of them. Revising them isn't really very time-consuming or difficult, and at the end of the day you'll be able to make the best comparisons if you're able to choose the best texts to compare. Simple as. 3. Use the exam time as a guide to which texts to use Again going back to the "only doing 2 texts" thing, there is NO optimum number of texts to do. You can get a 7 comparing 2 of them, and you can get a 7 comparing all 4 of them. Also 3. It depends on the question you get and how much you know to be able to write! Sometimes you'll be able to say a lot about 2 texts, sometimes you'll be able to say a little about all 4. Provided your answer is high quality and makes some good points, it'll be okay. 4. Avoid the format Text A. Text B. Text C. End. This also applies to the World Lit essays: do not write everything about Love in Text A and then everything about Love in Text B. It is infinitely easier to make good points and score better if you follow the model: Point A about Love in Text A, Point A about Love in Text B. In other words, each paragraph(ish) should be a comparison of a specific point across the texts, and you should be constantly flitting between the two or more texts. This'll give you good structure and make your essay cohesive. It's similar to the line-of-argument thinking, really. Hopefully that makes sense. 5. Learn roughly 5 quotes per text (minimum) You don't have the texts with you in the exams (unless your school is being super lax with the IB rules), however it is always good to A) do some language analysis B) show your amazing knowledge of the texts Of course you can (and definitely should) show knowledge by explaining where your examples sit in context within the texts, how they're supported or repeated throughout the text and all that sort of thing which shows the examiner that you clearly know the text well, without quoting. However, quotes are important. I would recommend you learn 4-5 quotes per text. The reason for this number? Well it's random, however it should also be sufficient. Remember that YOU are in charge of putting them in, so for all the examiner knows, you might know every word of the whole book but have just chosen to put in 2 or 3 quotes -- you can show off what you know and totally skip on what you don't know by simply explaining it rather than quoting it. Consequently, you don't need to remember lots, and you can base some of your points around your quotes to make sure you nip them in. For this reason, your quotes need to be well-selected. I would recommend that you have quotes to convey the main themes, important things about the main characters, examples of the author's style if they have a distinctive style, and at least one quote which you can do a tiny bit of literary analysis on per text. You can find these by flicking through the books and just thinking of the most important things your teachers picked out in lessons, or you'll also find that sites like Sparknotes often contain 'key' quotes which you can use to inspire you. Picture them appearing in your essay and the points you'll make from them and it'll help you pick They don't have to be long... even just 3 words long if it makes your point! 6. Make sure the essay has a sound, planned structure In my experience, people rarely run out of time for this essay. There's no line-by-line version where you can ramble on to make your point, you'll have to structure it. Again you should practice how long this is going to take you, but you should do it a bit like Tip 1. Columns to compare points across as many texts as you're going to include. This shouldn't take you too long, but make sure you introduce with a mini line-of-argument, as in Paper 1 (it's a bit harder in Paper 2 so your introduction will probably just be some major generalising about the way in which the theme pops up in the texts) -- this'll also provide you with a way to conclude. Always think how to link the previous point to the next point so your essay flows well. 7. Remember what your texts are called and who wrote them... It does not in any way shape or form help impress the examiner if you cannot get these right!! You'd be amazed what sorts of things you assume you know but will blank on in the exam, and the names of texts and authors are right up there with major things people forget. Part of this is due to the fact you'll be giving them all slang names by the end of studying them (e.g. 'Handmaids' instead of 'The Handmaid's Tale', and suddenly you'll be in the exam wondering who on earth wrote it, how many Ts there are in "At(t?)wood" and whether it was 'a' Handmaid's Tale or 'the' Handmaid's Tale or whether there was ever an extra word there at all). Really stupid things but you'll get stuck! Make sure you're spelling all of the titles, character and author's names right (don't assume you've been calling them the right name for 2 years, for instance many people reading The Outsider are very freaked that 'Mersault' has secretly been called 'Meursault' the whole time). This is the thing you will absolutely kick yourself for not getting right. 8. Always refer back to context and give examples Show you know the texts! Without retelling the story, pop in a little bit of context with all your examples, and make sure you give an example (not necessarily quoted, remember, it can just be explained) for every point you make. Don't waste your time by going into insane detail, just make it subtly obvious you know the texts with context and examples. 9. How many paragraphs should my essay have?? Okay, lots of people ask this. The answer is AS MANY AS IT NEEDS. The reason for this is the intrinsic structure of your essay. You want each paragraph/section to be illustrating a new compare/contrast point. For instance, if the Question you're given is something like... "In the texts you have studied, what is the role of time?", you want to instantly come up with comparators/contrasts. E.g.... - in Long Day's Journey Into Night, the setting changes over time to show the passing of the day and the 'journey into night' - in Waiting for Godot, the setting never changes to reflect how despite changing time, nothing actually changes - in Long Day's Journey Into Night, the mother lives mentally in the past and regresses further and further as the play goes on - in Waiting for Godot the characters are confused about the time and how long they've been there (...and then obviously a lot more points!!) Having done this you want to look at the points of comparison and contrast you've created. I would say that the points are 1. the way that time affects setting 2. the character's view of the passage of time Et voila! 2 points and ~ 2 paragraphs. Hopefully this illustrates the idea of the structure: your paragraphs/sections should represent your points, and your point should compare/contrast across all the texts you're using. In this way you end up with a good, well-structured essay that very tightly and neatly answers the question. Your points and ideas are very clear! This is, essentially, PEE again. Got to love PEE Really though, there's no point in doing X number of paragraphs as some optimum number. You'll have no idea how many points you're going to have and how many paragraphs your writing will take up until you've written it. Otherwise it's like saying that you're going somewhere nobody's ever been before, but nevertheless want somebody to advise you on the exact walking time. Just plain old bizarre. Tips for Writing WL1 Essays 1. Get your question right! "Thesis statement" or question, whatever code name it goes under, it is absolutely absolutely essential it's right. You have several things to look at to get it 'right', and these are as follows A) You will be able to write 1,500 words in answer to your question. WL essays are short and if it's not 1,450-1,500 words minimum I would suggest you've not set yourself a very good question or have failed to answer it thoroughly enough. You should be editing out minor words like crazy trying to trim it down, and definitely not stopping short of the mark. B) You will be able to answer the question extremely thoroughly within 1,500 words. If you think "oh and I could've said that, too, but I ran out of space..." you didn't set yourself a very good question! Your question must be FULLY answered in the word count. C) It will be a question! I personally think the phrase "thesis statement" can be misleading in terms of including the word statement. There should be no stating, narrating or retelling (unless it's part of briefly establishing context). You're trying to prove something by answering a task you've set yourself. If you're having difficulty finding a question, I would suggest looking again at major themes and characters as you'll invariably find at least something to compare between those. 2. Thoroughly integrate the two texts As with Paper 2 (Tip 4) make sure you constantly put one text against the other and do your best to avoid half your essay being about Text A and then half your essay being about Text B. You can't really do an analytical comparison that way, you end up just listing facts about 1 and facts about 2 -- if you're good you might be able to link Text B back every single time you spot an overlap, but that makes for difficult and messy reading and is generally not what you want to be doing if your aim is to impress. 3. Keep quotes short, simple and sweet Definitely quote! Just remember that quotes take up your word count, so the more professional you are about integrating your quotes the better. Don't quote a whole sentence if the bit you want is only in part of it. If you can edit out/in words so it makes sense in the context of what you're writing, that not only shows that you are proficient at writing and will get you brownie points for that, but also saves your word count (yay). To show an example of quotes being integrated well and quotes being integrated less well, I shall give an example -- for instance, if the sentence in the book was "Fred's tortured past was long behind him now" A 'worse' version of this might be By saying 'Fred's tortured past was long behind him now', the author contrasts the fact that his past was bleak with the fact it happened a long time ago .... A better version: Here Fred's past is described as "tortured" but the author also contrasts it with the fact that it is "long behind him now" Not the best of examples but hopefully you can see that by chopping and changing, you can quote as part of your explanation rather than quoting something and then explaining it. In the long run it reads better, saves words and is generally more efficient. 4. SHOW your knowledge of the text The best way to do this is by putting all of your examples in context. It's very important to appear to have a good working knowledge of whatever it is you're writing about and you should note that the IB specifies an appreciation of culture as one of its little keywords in the WL1 blurb. Although you should put all of the examples into the context of the novel/play/whatever itself, it's possibly worth putting some points of the novel in a more global context -- for instance if you were to pick out an example from Animal Farm with one of the pigs talking, you could extremely briefly mention the propaganda of Orwell's time and the message which he intends to convey through the character of the pigs being very relevant to its original readers. With Antigone or one of the Ancient Greek plays, pointing out how useful the Chorus is as a narrative technique given the mechanics of Greek theatres. This kind of thing is good because it shows you appreciate the style of the piece and also its original cultural context. Whatever you do do NOT go on about this for any longer than absolutely necessary. It's a World Literature piece, so any reference to non-WL stuff should be the tiniest of comments, but it's a good idea to nip in this sort of thing somewhere as it shows the examiner you appreciate a very large context to your understanding of the literature. 5. Take advantage of presenting the characters (added by Tilia) Present the characters. Don't write "X eats a potato together with Y". Instead write "The 16-year-old protagonist X eats a potato together with his best friend and neighbour, the blonde Englishman Y". This is how you show knowledge of works, criterion B. (And handily use hardly any of your word count in the process! Good tip or what?) Literary features bucket list: a short list of essentials literary features you can add to... but it's definitely useful to know these ones! Hopefully those're all helpful hints. Please feel free to post some of your own and I'll edit them into this thread with some credit -- only if they're decent, of course, although I'm sure they will be (so no "bring a pen" comments!) xP Or if you have constructive comments to make on the tips already up there, those are also welcome.
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    They're both more or less the same, bio is memorization and chem is calculations, as you said. If you're more comfortable with chem, take chem HL and bio SL. Most careers require both sciences, idk specifically about dietician.
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    Hi Himiy, As your grade depends on your essay title, we can't do all the work for you and give you one However, you may want to have a look at the following Geography EE support material: http://xmltwo.ibo.org/publications/DP/Group0/d_0_eeyyy_gui_1012_1/html/production-app3.ibo.org/publication/258/part/4/chapter/13.html Also, for your EE you will likely want to invest a specific volcano or tsunami, so it would be good to have several ideas of these first, and then narrow down what particular aspect of the volcanoes/tsunamis you could investigate. Don't hesitate to suggest some more specific ideas, and we'll be able to give you feedback on whether they're suitable or not. This link also has a few sample EE's for you to look at: https://extendedessays.wikispaces.com/Geography Best wishes for your EE, astonky PS: I'm also doing mine in Geography, but I'm focussing on internet penetration rates and the digital divide.
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    I don't mean to be offensive but I'm not entirely sure how this is a comprehensive or helpful post and I fail to see how it explains what the title claims. For instance, I've never seen criterion B as personal connection or personal thoughts; I've always been of the opinion that interpretation really refers to talking about the themes discussed in the poems and of course, backing these claims up with quotes from the poem. Of course, this is probably what you're saying as well but I disagree with personalising it and using 'I'. It's certainly not advisable and you're encouraged to not personalise the commentary as much as possible. And for criterion C, it's really not just 'scatter in some literary devices and you're good'. You need to know how to identify these devices and talk about how their use assist in the expression of the ideas that you believe the poem is discussing. You need to analyse them, understand the mechanics of the poem, know why those literary techniques are included in the poem and what their effect on the reader and the poem are. And ofc you need to express this in the commentary. Another important thing to keep in mind is to take note of a 'wild card'. I came across this tip a few months ago somewhere on the internet (so I'm not claiming any credit for this~) but it's basically just that all poems are different from each other and contain an element that makes them unique. In some poems it might be a certain literary device, like personification or in another it might be developing the story/character in it. Those things are definitely worth talking about, in a separate paragraph if you want to. It really does reflect on your ability to analyse and appreciate literary devices used in the poem. Thirdly, criterion E isn't just 'don't use slang/swear words'. It really does take into consideration your use of vocabulary as well as your sentence structure and your ability to coherently express your views. For example, I could say 'the poem talks about how love is weak and complicated' but I feel like 'the poem depicts the complexities and frailty of love' will probably win me more points. I disagree on prose being easier. I think whether the poem or the passage is easier is very subjective and I find the poem much, much easier to analyse. It has room for far more interpretation, it takes less time to read and annotate and I find it easier to pick out literary devices used in poetry and examine the reasons for their inclusion and the effect they have. I also feel like the use of literary devices in poetry just stands out more to me--I can just tell what effect the use of a certain word has over the use of a synonym of that word. I feel like you haven't really explored what it takes to get a 7 in Paper 1. You've mentioned a lot of vague things and your tips are rather obvious, really. In addition, I get the impression that you're trying to simplify writing a commentary into 'do x and do y and you'll get a 7', which seems like a good idea but that seems like a silly way to write a commentary. Each piece of writing has traits to it that make it different and the effect they will have on you are different as well; it's hard to treat them all the same way and expect the same method to work for them. There are common things to talk about that are needed to fill out the requirements (like talking about literary devices) but say, in a poem that made significant use of personification, it would be a little weird to place your focus on the (hypothetical) minor amounts of alliteration in it. --- EDIT: oh wow this entire post was pretty much pointless, I just realised that the OP posted this two years ago ... q.q
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    In mathematics class, we were studying complex numbers. At the time our teacher wrote z=a+ib , whole class said: " I-B "