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  1. 2 points
    I am in Bio HL, however, I am in Year 1 currently so I don't know how it's gonna be with the further topics, but I'm getting currently mostly 7s and 6s (my average percentage score for the first term was 93%). I have never opened any textbook, but I agree that the Bioknowledgy presentations are amazing and they have everything you need, I guess. I sometimes use BioNinja while making my own notes, because it is, in my opinion, better-organized. And I would advise to solve a lot of pastpapers/question bank problems before tests/exams, so that you can apply your knowledge to the real questions. I don't know if I helped a lot, but maybe if you have any specific questions (regarding Bio because I don't take Psychology and it's not available at my school so I can't really help with that), feel free to ask :))
  2. 1 point
    Hi! Here are a few I've found useful: IB Youtubers: - Ivy Lilia - Katie Tracy (you can also just search IB or your subject name on youtube to find other resources on there) Academic youtubers: - Kahn academy - Eddie woo Past papers: https://ibresources.org/ib-past-papers/ https://ibeliteacademy.com/ib-past-papers https://www.ibo.org/programmes/diploma-programme/assessment-and-exams/sample-exam-papers/ http://www.follettibstore.com/ (paid past papers) Hope this helped
  3. 1 point
    So for my CAS project, my friend and I are creating a Pen Pal program with our Diploma and Middle Years Program (we are mainly focusing on DP). We originally had a school in Italy lined up to work with us, but they ended up flaking last minute. If anyone is interested in being a Pen Pal, or if you know kids at your school who may be interested please respond. The only requirement is that your school is outside of the US and Canada. Thanks a bunch
  4. 1 point
    Hey guys, so I'm actually in a dilemma right now. I'm an IB Junior doing HL Bio, HL English, and HL Math. I wanted to do my extended essay in biology, but I've been reading several reviews discouraging me to do so. I'm stuck between biology and english and I'm trying to weigh the pros and cons of both subjects. Plus, I need to submit my proposal in a week so I really need to figure this out asap. For bio -- I need to do an experiment, but I've been realising the severity of the situation because doing an experiment and keeping multiple variables controlled can be hard. But for eng -- I have 0 idea on what book I should choose. I mean yeah I have a little bit of an idea, I was thinking of something from Toni Morrison but I'm really unsure. I need help, just suggestions or past experiences by anyone.. PLEASE HELP! thank you!!
  5. 1 point

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    Potato cube lab, unsure of my grade.
  6. 1 point
    Thank You soo much everyone for all the help and support!! means alot to me !! 🙏💕
  7. 1 point
    Thank you so much for your information! I am going to take Bio HL as well.
  8. 1 point
    Well it's good to see you're not struggling math as many do struggle from it! And launguages plus theatre is something I would deff. fail so good job on not seeing them as hard subjects! Alright, so I'm biology HL and get 6s and 7s and I use the Oxford book and this website. I have never in my life opened Bio Ninja and I did once, it barley touches the surface of most topics so I wouldn't recommend it! Website: https://www.bioknowledgy.info/ Download the presentations! (They are a life-saverrrr!!!!!) I use PDFs as a method of revision. Never study Bio last minute. Don't take Bio as a science, take it as a story! For example, you want to study the parts of the heart, memorize how the blood flows through every part! Not just the shape and such! While I don't take psychology and have no experience, I recommend studying lots of study cases (That's what I heard from my friends that take psychology. Sorry I couldn't help much here ) Tbh... 2 subjects aren't something to be worried about! I thought you would have problems with 3-5 subjects! Dw! You have other subjects that can help raise other subjects. OH! FOCUS ON INTERNALS!!!!! Finish them ASAP, including CAS, EE and TOK!
  9. 1 point
    No problem! Just a few questions before I can comment: Is it necessary that you take math SL? Why not studies? (If math is not working our for you) Which of the languages is A and which is B? And what are you fluent in? Which of your subjects are not working out for you?
  10. 1 point
    Hey! So, I have been experiencing the same thing and I am a science stream student, but my weakness were languages, so I dropped down to course, do I wont receive a Diploma, but I can go to great universities! I never got above 30 in DP1, but the first month of DP2 I got a 33! Since I focused on my actual subjects that I want (Bio HL/Chem HL and Math SL) AND got the highest grade in my year in math SL! Here is what I advice: 1-Your subjects: I used to get constant 4s in my English A HL then dropped down to English A SL and then to English B HL (Yikes) BUT I started getting 6s and 7s! Make sure your subjects are working out for you and don't be that person that takes more HL subjects that needed. 2-Study schedule with time management: Here is a little tip in tricking your mind to study. Lets say you want to study 3 topics of a certain subject, plan to study 5! If you are some one that doesn't stick to schedule it's the perfect tip, because it is highly that you will finish 5, but will 100% finish at least 3 topics. If you did finish 5 topics! FANTASTIC! *(But don't finish studying just to get rid of "studying"). 3-Take a time-off ONLY when needed! 4-And this is important: Suicide is NEVER the answer. You have a bright future ahead of you, trust me, I've had panic attacks that affected my mentality and physical state and suicide thoughts! But now... I feel great most of the times! If you don't mind saying, what are your subjects? Maybe I can help!
  11. 1 point
    @ChocolateAndVanilla I would say stay in AA SL. There are many online resources available (especially from non-IB sites) that can help. AA SL should in theory leave more doors open.
  12. 1 point
    As long as you have HL bio & chem, it doesn't matter whether you take AA SL or AI HL. Choose whichever you are confident with!
  13. 1 point
    hey i know im like 5 years late but do you think you can send me your essay? thanks [email protected] it would be much appreciated
  14. 1 point
    Q1 I use the formula: concentration = moles / volume (C = n/V) We are given "5.0dm3 of 2.00mol dm-3 sodium carbonate solution". What I did was rearrange the question to find the moles of the solution so I did: n1 = C1V1 (i added 1's to make it look clear in the next step) Therefore: C = C1V1 / V (=) C1V1 = 5.0dm3 x 2.00 = 10 mol/dm3 (=) C = 10/ (500/1000)dm3 = 20 mol/dm3 Q2 PV = nRT --> n = RT/PV STP values are: T=273K R=8.31 (forgot what the units for this was) P=1.00x10ˆ5 Pa Substitute: n = (1.00x10ˆ5Pa)(0.0618m3) / (8.31)(273K) = 3.002 mol of N2 The molar ratio between sodium azide and nitrogen is 2:3 Therefore --> (2/3)(3.002) = 2.001 moles of sodium azide Using the formula: moles = mass / molar mass (n=m/M) rearranged to m=nM: 2.001 mol X 65.0 g/mol = 130.0g Q3 a) n=m/M M = 30.97 g/mol 2.478g / 30.97 g/mol = 0.08 mol. of phosphorus b) C=n/V to n=CV we can get moles of aqueous sodium hydroxide: (100/1000)dm3 x 5 mol/dm3 = 0.5 mol of sodium hydroxide We divide both moles of solution by their coefficients and the smaller value is limiting: 0.08/1 = 0.08 (limiting) so the phosphorous is limiting 0.5/3 = 1.67 c) I'm not sure about this question but this is how i interpreted it: (100/1000)dm3 x 5 mol/dm3 = 0.5 mol of sodium hydroxide Molar Ratio is 1 mol. of Phosphorous: 3 mol. of sodium hydroxide 0.5/3 = 1.67 d) I think you meant cm3 instead of cm2: moles x 22.7 (STP volume) = volume 0.5 x 22.7 = 11.35 cm3 NOTE: I'm not sure about the last two parts of question 3 but I can ask my teacher. I've got a terrible teacher so I have to self-teach myself chemistry at the moment so I'm sorry if I got anything wrong here/did not match the markscheme
  15. 1 point

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    'Foreign intervention is the main reason why the Nationalists won the Spanish Civil War' This essay got a 7.
  16. 1 point
    No it is not compulsory. If you look through the IB guide for the EE, you will see this mentioned as well. It simply doesn't make sense to force diagrams and pictures in an EE if its irrelevant.
  17. 1 point
    If math is your hands-down definitive best subject, then it's doable to get an A. Keep in mind that C is the average grade across all subjects. Basically if you have always been 1-2 years ahead in math than your peers, or are able to pick up math quicker than the others than Math EE can be an option. You want to first read the Math chapter in the EE guide, understand the criteria, and brainstorm on some possible topics. Keep your options open and find topics in other subjects as well.
  18. 1 point
    OK , first of all you have to know that failing IB is not the worst thing. You could go to a community college after IB and continue your studies there. You could also retake them in the November session. I would suggest you to make a daily study schedule. Put in more hours on subjects that you do not understand. Talk to your teachers about exam technique and time management (perhaps this is where you lose marks). Try and perfect your IA's so that you don't lose out there. Take some help from friends. Just remember that suicide is NEVER an option, however bad your circumstances are.
  19. 1 point
    For the last few months I've been volunteering at my daughter's high school to help the 12th graders review for the International Baccalaureate (IB) Maths Standard Level Exam in May 2015. In the process I produced these review notes that I thought could be useful to other students preparing for the exam as well. Review Notes for IB Maths Standard Level I'd be grateful if you email me with any mistakes you find so I can correct them. Best of luck on the upcoming exams.
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  21. 1 point
    I hope you found your topic, by the time I am writing his message. But if not, if your interested in mechanics and a simple experiment, I suggest you look into a double pendulum... experiments are pretty simple. Although there is an issue on mathematical rigor, as u gotta focus on Lagrangian Mechanics, but if u love mathematics, then u can look in this (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qO3ysz1jJU8). If u want something different, and if u're like things about electronmagnetism, then u can go ahead and look at the connection of electric fields and refraction.... (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NLmpNM0sgYk) In the end... I hope you the best for your IAs and u're final Nov exam.
  22. 1 point
    Oh my God!!! I LOVE MR WENG
  23. 1 point
    Wooooah chill girl - we were just asking for suggestions and for some insight because we are struggling. No need to be rude and sassy. You can keep that to yourself, thanks.
  24. 1 point
    I'm doing EE in language B too and we just had our viva voces last month. If you're doing ur exams in English then do your viva voce in English but write your reflections in the EE language, in this case French. That's what my school does every year.
  25. 1 point
    Hi guys, So I'll be giving my exams this May and, I've taken Chemistry HL .Now, the problem i have is that, I haven't been doing well in chemistry.Constanlt getting a 4 or a 5 has really made me doubtful of getting a 7.I have studied all the chapters thoroughly and I've noticed that the problem usually lies in the exam.I tend to get nervous and then blankout.In addition, I alos tend to write anwers that are not according to the marking scheme. If anybody has any tips on how I could bring my marks to a 7 or , maybe even a 6 I would be really grateful.
  26. 1 point
    Hi, there. I've been having the same issue in my Group 4 courses (I take Biology too). I was always so frustrated because my friends would get top marks in Chem and Bio and it caused me to compare myself a lot. I think that the users above have the right idea.There really is a method to IB's madness and it's basically the mark scheme.
  27. 1 point
    From the IB 2018 EE Guide: So all work(s) you analyze must have originally been written in the target language. The author's nationality does not matter, nor does setting, etc. If you are doing a Language B EE in French, all works you analyze must have been written in French and not translated. I'd recommend checking the guide before asking generic questions. I and many others are happy to answer questions; it's just that some questions unfortunately don't get a reply because there are a lot and we're busy whereas your pretty much guaranteed an answer if you check the guide and you'll get it faster. Thanks and good luck.
  28. 1 point
    From EE Guide 2018 (Jan 2017 revision) page 124: Language B EEs must be in that language. Since French is a modern language, the rule applies. The Language B EE is not appropriate for Old French or any non-contemporary language.
  29. 1 point
    I started writing my EE for the French B topic field. It is about French, written in English. Myself, my supervisor and even the IB coordinator do not know if this is acceptable, so a yes or no answer as to whether I can do this or not is appreciated from someone who has done this or knows more about restrictions around second language (language B) Extended Essays, thanks.
  30. 1 point
    My classmate sent me this for tomorrows exam and I found it to be most helpful, so I wanted to share it with you guys A good way is to discuss the following for both prose and poetry: · The five W’s – What? Who? When? Where? Why? · Ambiguities · Diction · Imagery · Tone · Mood · Structure · Pattern · Voice · Syntax Prose-specific: · Plot · Narrative point of view · Characterization · Chronology (Use of time) · Setting · Paragraphing Poetry-specific: · Layout · Stanzas · Metre · Sound Organization of Time: 30 minutes – Read the passage, over and over again until you feel confident about the passage and have absorbed its contents. Then analysis and structure your commentary with a thesis statement. Exemplary Thesis Statement: A’s work B shows C through the following devices D to achieve overall effect(s) E. Outline: Introduction – Opener containing author and title. Discuss the main issues of your commentary, e.g. devices, in such a way that you are “attempting” to understand the meaning of the work (e.g. the overall effect). Do not present yourself in such a manner that you seem entirely self-assured in the introduction, but rather you have noticed something and plan to explore it further through the commentary. Conclude with the thesis statement. Literary devices #1 (e.g. Structure, Diction, Imagery) – Open with the general intent of the paragraph – e.g. A uses archaic diction to rectify the Victorian setting. Then, discuss the evidence for this, showing the effects of these devices and the author’s intention with this. The closing sentence should present what device you were exploring and the overall effect you feel this had for the passage, and in its heightening of the “overall effect and intentions” of the passage. Repeat this for every group of literary devices, mentioning all the relevant devices and aspects (see previous lists). Conclusion – state that extent of the effect’s effectiveness. Then state the devices that contributed. Then conclude with a clincher. 90 minutes – Write, using proof from the text, in accordance with your previously made outline. Discuss the effects of the devices and show “professional” personal interpretation. Ensure that your vocabulary is eloquent and coherently verbose. Tips: 1. The structure of your commentary is probably the single most important way of gaining (and losing marks). Write a strong Introduction and Conclusion (in a similar format as previously described) and ensure that every body paragraph has a strong opener with the intent of the paragraph and a clincher which emphasizes the addition to meaning that the devices provide. This is incredibly easy to do - but if forgotten, it will make a difference in your grade. 2. ‘So what?’ mentality – every single device you mention should have you thinking “So what?” what does this device do for the passage? How does it contribute to the overall effect or meaning? This will strengthen your discussion of the effects (key for HL). If you cannot mention the effect or the significance DO NOT mention the device! 3. Do not seem definitive, rather seem to “struggle” – use words like ‘perhaps’, ‘seems to’, etc, to ensure that you do not say “This is what the poem is, take it or leave it.” The examiner has most definitely read the passage well and will not be pleased to see a butchering of the text, which is definitive (and most likely pompous in their eyes). Also, this will allow you to point out the text’s ambiguities and describe their significance. 4. Use ‘the reader,’ ‘the audience,’ and possibly even ‘we’ to reinforce the reader. 5. Do not state the obvious – show your thought process and analysis. Example, in commenting on a passage from Life of Pi, where the author mentions the tiger and child are scared: “link 1: the boat is sinking and tiger is too (obviously) link 2: the tiger is scared (clearly implied by text) link 3: fear is an emotion, therefore the tiger is experiencing human emotions (low level thinking) link 4: if the tiger is experincing human emotions, the author is trying to humanize the tiger (slightly higher level thinking) link 5: why is the author humanizing the tiger? perhaps the tiger is supposed to be a metaphor for a concept (higher level thinking) link 6: what is the concept and what are the author's reasons? (thesis statement) link 7: since these emotions are humans, there is personification going on (more higher level thinking). An example of an explication written for a timed exam (non-IB specific): The Fountain Fountain, fountain, what do you say Singing at night alone? "It is enough to rise and fall Here in my basin of stone." But are you content as you seem to be So near the freedom and rush of the sea? "I have listened all night to its laboring sound, It heaves and sags, as the moon runs round; Ocean and fountain, shadow and tree, Nothing escapes, nothing is free." —Sara Teasdale (American, l884-1933) As a direct address to an inanimate object "The Fountain" presents three main conflicts concerning the appearance to the observer and the reality in the poem. First, since the speaker addresses an object usually considered voiceless, the reader may abandon his/her normal perception of the fountain and enter the poet's imaginative address. Secondly, the speaker not only addresses the fountain but asserts that it speaks and sings, personifying the object with vocal abilities. These acts imply that, not only can the fountain speak in a musical form, but the fountain also has the ability to present some particular meaning ("what do you say" (1)). Finally, the poet gives the fountain a voice to say that its perpetual motion (rising and falling) is "enough" to maintain its sense of existence. This final personification fully dramatizes the conflict between the fountain's appearance and the poem's statement of reality by giving the object intelligence and voice. The first strophe, four lines of alternating 4- and 3-foot lines, takes the form of a ballad stanza. In this way, the poem begins by suggesting that it will be story that will perhaps teach a certain lesson. The opening trochees and repetition stress the address to the fountain, and the iamb which ends line 1 and the trochee that begins line 2 stress the actions of the fountain itself. The response of the fountain illustrates its own rise and fall in the iambic line 3, and the rhyme of "alone" and "stone" emphasizes that the fountain is really a physical object, even though it can speak in this poem. The second strophe expands the conflicts as the speaker questions the fountain. The first couplet connects the rhyming words "be" and "sea" these connections stress the question, "Is the fountain content when it exists so close to a large, open body of water like the ocean?" The fountain responds to the tempting "rush of the sea" with much wisdom (6). The fountain's reply posits the sea as "laboring" versus the speaker's assertion of its freedom; the sea becomes characterized by heavily accented "heaves and sags" and not open rushing (7, 8). In this way, the fountain suggests that the sea's waters may be described in images of labor, work, and fatigue; governed by the moon, these waters are not free at all. The "as" of line 8 becomes a key word, illustrating that the sea's waters are not free but commanded by the moon, which is itself governed by gravity in its orbit around Earth. Since the moon, an object far away in the heavens, controls the ocean, the sea cannot be free as the speaker asserts. The poet reveals the fountain's intelligence in rhyming couplets which present closed-in, epigrammatic statements. These couplets draw attention to the contained nature of the all objects in the poem, and they draw attention to the final line's lesson. This last line works on several levels to address the poem's conflicts. First, the line refers to the fountain itself; in this final rhymed couplet is the illustration of the water's perpetual motion in the fountain, its continually recycled movement rising and falling. Second, the line refers to the ocean; in this respect the water cannot escape its boundary or control its own motions. The ocean itself is trapped between landmasses and is controlled by a distant object's gravitational pull. Finally, the line addresses the speaker, leaving him/her with an overriding sense of fate and fallacy. The fallacy here is that the fountain presents this wisdom of reality to defy the speaker's original idea that the fountain and the ocean appear to be trapped and free. Also, the direct statement of the last line certainly addresses the human speaker as well as the human reader. This statement implies that we are all trapped or controlled by some remote object or entity. At the same time, the assertion that "Nothing escapes" reflects the limitations of life in the world and the death that no person can escape. Our own thoughts are restricted by our mortality as well as by our limits of relying on appearances. By personifying a voiceless object, the poem presents a different perception of reality, placing the reader in the same position of the speaker and inviting the reader to question the conflict between appearance and reality, between what we see and what we can know. SUGGESTIONS FOR IMPROVEMENT: The writer observes and presents many of the most salient points of the short poem, but she could indeed organize the explication more coherently. To improve this explication, the writer could focus more on the speaker's state of mind. In this way, the writer could explore the implications of the dramatic situation even further: why does the speaker ask a question of a mute object? With this line of thought, the writer could also examine more closely the speaker's movement from perplexity (I am trapped but the waters are free) to a kind of resolution (the fountain and the sea are as trapped as I am). Finally, the writer could include a more detailed consideration of rhythm, meter, and rhyme. Hope this helps, best regards from Teresa in Iceland
  31. 1 point

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    Hi This is my first 20/20 in an English A Lit HL Paper 1 exam and as lots of people asked, I thought I might as well just upload it here! Good luck everyone! Daisy.
  32. 1 point

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    Top 15 tips to get your Chemistry IA to Level 7 Mr. Chem’s Top 15 tips to get your Chemistry IA to level 7 - IBS.pdf
  33. 1 point
    I haven't seen any IA tips around so I guess I would share some tips gathered from my Mathematics HL teacher's suggestions, some IBSurvival members' suggestions, my own knowledge and my own experiences. Cover Page Unless this is set by your school, I recommend that your cover page includes: • School Name (e.g. Sekolah Tiara Bangsa – ACS) • School Crest, if available • Subject & Level (e.g. Mathematics HL) • Portfolio Type (e.g. Portfolio Type I) • Portfolio Title (e.g. Patterns Within Systems of Linear Equations) • Candidate Name (e.g. Desy Kristianti) • Candidate Number (e.g. 001863-002) • Examination Session (e.g. May 2012) Header and Footer I recommend that your Header includes: • Candidate Name (e.g. Desy Kristianti) • Candidate Number (e.g. 001863-002) • Subject & Level (e.g. Mathematics HL) • Portfolio Type & Title (e.g. Portfolio Type I – Patterns Within Systems of Linear Equations) I recommend that your Footer includes: • Page number in "Page X of Y" format (Page 3 of 20) • (Note that your cover page is not included in the page number) Formatting I recommend that you have the following formatting: • Font : Times New Roman or Arial • Font Size : 12 or 11 respectively • Font Colour : Black (Automatic) • Line Spacing : 1.5 lines • Alignment : Justified • All variables and constants typed using the Equation feature in Ms. Word • The portfolio should be printed in colour Introduction I recommend you to do the following in your introduction: • Define some terms where appropriate (e.g. define Stellar Numbers). If you do not come up with the definitions by yourself, citations should be included as footnotes. • Introduce the problem in the task • Briefly describe what your portfolio is all about • Mention the purpose of the portfolio • Name the software or program(s) that you are going to use • Include a logo of all the software or program(s) used (e.g. Figure 1) Figure 1 Autograph Body I recommend you to do the following in your portfolio: • Answer all the questions in the order of how the questions are presented in the task sheet. However, do not write your portfolio in question-answer form. There should be a nice flow throughout your portfolio. • Define relevant variables clearly. Usually x∈ℤ or x∈ℝ. If x∈ℝ and you are asked to put in different values of x, try all possible kind of constants such as: Integers (e.g. −12, 0, 23)Fractions (e.g. −13/19, 1/2, 21/4)Surds (e.g. −√2, (√5)/7, √(107) )Logarithm (e.g. − log5 8.5 , (log 9)/6 , ln 4)Pi (e.g. − 2π ,5/π , 7.3π3)Trig functions (sin 2π ,−tan 100° , 2 cos2 45° , cot 35°)Euler's number (e.g. − e, 2e/9 , 6.8e2)Complex number (e.g. √(-7), 3.8+4i)• Explain what you are going to do before performing a calculation • Show all the relevant steps for calculations. Any calculation performed should be shown. • Calculate everything using your calculator except for rudimentary calculations (e.g. use calculator to find the inverse of a matrix but do not use calculator to calculate 2+3) • If you are using a calculator, put a screenshot showing just the part showing the mathematics. You do not need the program interface. These figures should be big enough that it is readable by unaided eyes but not too big. • Use mathematical notations and terminologies where appropriate (e.g. arithmetic sequence, discriminant, augmented matrix, asymptote, infinity, etc.) • Use a graphing software to plot graphs • Use different colours if you plot more than one function on the same set of axes. Indicate clearly which function is which colour. Legends should be put on the same page with the graph. • Put the graph and the caption on the same page. If you need to rotate the graph, rotate the caption too so that the examiner know how they should see the graph. • Do not describe step by step how to plot the graph using your graphing software. Instructions on how you got the graphs you got are not necessary, as what the examiners are focusing on is your mathematical process, not the tools you used for the process. Just describe briefly what you are doing with that software. • If you are asked to develop a model function, develop any of the following: LinearQuadraticCubicExponentialLogarithmicSinusoidal• Write in third person. Do not use I, YOU and WE. • Go the extra mile, if possible • A good portfolio should be 16-28 pages long Conclusion I recommend you to do the following towards the end of your portfolio: • Tell them that this is the end of your investigation • Conclude your answers in 1-3 sentences • Mention the software or program(s) used in bullet points Calculator I recommend you to use any of the following software or program(s): • TI-Nspire Student Software (http://education.ti..../detail?id=6768) • Any Graphic Display Calculator that you have Graphing Software I recommend you to use any of the following graphing software or program(s): • Autograph (http://www.autograph-maths.com/) • GeoGebra (http://www.geogebra.org) • TI-Nspire Student Software (http://education.ti..../detail?id=6768) • Wolfram Mathematica (http://www.wolfram.c...atica/features/) • Microsoft Excel • Winplot (http://math.exeter.e...is/winplot.html) • Graphmatica (http://www8.pair.com/ksoft/) Some other graphing software or programs you could possibly use: • GraphCalc (http://www.graphcalc.com) • Graphing Calculator 3D (http://calculator.ru...ing-calculator/) • Logger Pro (http://www.vernier.com/soft/lp.html) • Maxima (http://maxima.sourceforge.net) • Fung-Calc (Linux only) (http://fung-calc.sourceforge.net) • Graph (http://www.padowan.dk/graph/) • Graphical Analysis (http://www.vernier.com/soft/ga.html) that is all from me. the full version of the tips is available in this file and there are also details of the assessment criteria in that file. if you guys have any other tips please post them below thank you!
  34. 1 point
    Alright, so I did Music (HL, which is both composition and performance) and did fairly well (most likely a 7). Here is what I suggest for each section: Composition (if you're doing it): Write to the markscheme. For instance, add bowing marks appropriately to violin parts, stacatto on piano, and appropriate techniques for all other instruments. The composition is, to some extent, showing off how well you know how all the instruments are used.I recommend using Finale or Sibelius for non-electronic music. Your school should be able to provide you with a copy of one of those two. If not, MuseScore and Finale Notepad are good alternatives. Don't pay for Finale or Sibelius if you can't get a copy, they're not massively better than the free alternatives.For electronic music, FL Studio, Cubase, Reaper (with Anvil as a midi editor), Reason, etc. are all good choices. You will have to pay for them; there are very little good free DAW's out there (or so I hear -- I don't actually do electronic music myself, I just asked a friend of mine).If you have spare time, remake your sheet music using Lilypond. If you do this, you'll definitely get 100% on the notation part of the markscheme. For electronic music, don't stick to presets. The reflection is massively important here - you'll want to talk about the specific sounds you made and what settings (ADSR envelope, resonance, etc.) you used to achieve those effects; and what purpose that particular sound serves in your composition.For standard compositions, I'd recommend sticking to one of the traditional forms (sonata, etc.) as a framework for your composition. Particularly if you're using a string quartet or something, it's easier just following one of the preexisting structures. For the reflection, I like making the music programmatic because it's easier to write a reflection with programmatic music (e.g. "I used arpeggios in the bass to represent the flowing water). For arrangements, if it's a piece with very little instruments, expand the piece to a full orchestra or some other large ensemble. If it's a piece with a lot of instruments, reduce the piece to a smaller set. Expanding it is more impressive, and I'd recommend expanding. If you're doing this, it's extremely helpful finding some experienced musicians who play the (violin, cello, viola, trumpet), etc. and ask them about their instrument and what kind of things they play in an orchestra. The arrangement is testing your knowledge of how to use the instruments.For improvisation, it's more of a thing that you can do already if you're experienced enough. I wouldn't recommend doing this if you're not already confident you can. If you're set on doing it though, please don't stick to the same chords for the whole thing. At the very least, put a minor section in the middle or something. For stylistic techniques, don't do it. Stylistic techniques will suck out your soul.Don't half-ass the reflection, it's a fifth of the mark. The reflection should include: your aim for the composition, what musical techniques you used in that aim, evaluation of those musical techniques, and what the experience of writing a composition has developed in you musically. Performance (if you're doing it): Keep the type of music you play varied. Try to explore a variety of genres (ancient, renaissance, baroque, classical, romantic, 20th century, jazz, swing, bebop, rock, pop, avant-garde, etc.) in your music. You will get marked down if you play almost entirely baroque, for instance.You get to choose the order the examiner will listen to your pieces in. I recommend placing your best pieces last (to make a lasting impression on the examiner), and try to hide the weaker ones in the middle.It's more important to play something slightly simpler with no mistakes then to play something complex with mistakes.If possible, get a good recording environment. It'll make the timbre of your instrument sound nicer in the recording.Do not use prerecorded accompaniment, it should be live. Even no accompaniment is sometimes better than a prerecorded one.Stick to your best instrument. The IB won't mark you down for only using one instrument. Of course, if you're equally good in multiple instruments, then you change it up. Exam Portion: Immediately get a copy of the sheet music of both set works and get them binded. Then get a recording of both set works as well. Then do a score read. You do not get a recording of the music in the exam, so you should score read regularly to develop a 'visual ear' -- being able to realise what a part of the sheet music sounds like exactly even without the recording.Annotate your copy with various musical devices you find. If it's a programmatic piece (e.g. An American in Paris) you will definitely try to see what aspect of Paris the musical device might be trying to invoke. Finding scholarly articles on these types of things may be a good idea. If it's a programmatic piece, they will usually ask a question revolving around the programmatic nature of the piece. So focus on that a lot - what parts of An American in Paris represent what parts of Paris. Maybe repetition of some motif is the walk of people on the streets, or a sudden burst of trumpets is the call of a stall owner trying to sell his wares (note: I have not listened to An American in Paris, so this is just speculation). But definitely look up the 'story' of An American in Paris and see what parts of the music correspond to what parts of the story.They will also often ask questions revolving around the context of the set works. For instance, the Petite messe solennelle is a sacred work set on sacred text. It is a mass. I find it likely the IB would ask a question about how the Petite messe solennelle is a mass (or more specifically, they may ask a question on a specific aspect of a mass, e.g. the sacred text dictating the form of the movement). The Section B (unseen) cannot be prepared for so easily. However, there are some common things that the IB often do. Typically, they will have a vocal piece (often sacred), so you should familiarise yourself with the Gregorian Chant, Madrigal, Mass, art song, etc., the features of each of these things (e.g. Gregoriant Chant often has a drone harmony, art song usually consists of piano and voice that are both equally important, etc.). They will also have either world music, or rock/jazz. World music is difficult to prepare for. I'd recommend getting familiar with some Chinese / Japanese / Korean music (in particular, note the pentatonic scale), and Celtic music (instruments, melody). For rock/jazz, you can look at swing, bebop, big bands, scat, etc. More recently, the IB have been giving fusion pieces (In the 2014 Novemember exam, a fusion of Indian folk music and rock). You'll have to be prepared for this -- I made reference to the traditional Indian singing style and use of the traditional Indian instruments, but also noted the 4/4 time signature and use of electric guitar and synthesiser. In general, for the context marks (what is this piece?) you need to identify relevant musical devices and explain why that indicates that the piece is from this era or this culture.Also try to familiarise yourself with some musical terms. You should be able to find lists of them online.The important distinction between a music essay and a literature essay is that you are not required to interpret beyond a context sense. In a literature essay, you have to argue the purpose of the work. You do not need to do this in a music essay - in a music essay you can simply say that there is repetition of a motif in e minor with arpeggios in the bass and a drone accompaniment (or whatever the piece actually is), without having to argue about why the composer would do this. The only exception is the context - you cannot simply say a piece is a bebop piece (for instance), you'd have to point out the musical devices used (e.g. "at 0:24 you can hear a 'bomb' in the snare drum - a sudden, unexpected hit - which is indicative of bebop music") that show that it is bebop.Musical Investigation: The hardest part of this is finding the pieces in the first place. Two strong musical links from two distinct cultures isn't the easiest thing to do.Once you find the two strong musical links it should be easier to write the actual investigation. I recommend not bothering about format at this point of the investigation; you will format it properly after you have finished writing it.When picking pieces, you cannot use a piece that is in itself a fusion of two different cultures. For instance, you cannot compare some of the Beatles' Indian-inspired works and actual Indian music.In general, by listening to lots of different types of music when preparing for Section B, you should be able to draw on that knowledge of what you have listened to to find the two pieces for the Musical Investigation.After you have finished, I highly recommend formatting it in a magazine article. To do this, I used the free trial of Adobe Indesign. Other options include a web page or a radio interview
  35. 1 point


    This is my HL math IA which models the resonance phenomenon of an old-fashioned airplane wing using differential equations (2nd order linear inhomogeneous). To be honest, i'm quite satisfied with it. However, there were a few stuff that I felt like i didnt do my best; such as the technology criteria. I did this IA in exactly 2-week time (at the risk of being kicked out of class for not being done), so i couldn't have time to expand a little bit on my use of technology in the IA........ Anyhow, I got 17/20 (moderated mark), which is basically equivalent to a 7. So i'm glad about it. PS. For future candidates: I strongly recommend you to choose calculus as your IA topic. It's incredibly fun and rewarding
  36. 1 point
    Chemistry SL Definitions Chapter One: Mole: is defined as the amount of substance that contains 6.02 X 1023 particles of that substance. Avogadro’s constant (L): the number of particles in one mole of substance which equals 6.02 X 1023 is called. It could be used with any particle, like atoms, molecules, protons, electrons, neutrons, positive ions, negative ions or formula units (used with ionic compounds). The relative atomic mass, RAM or Ar, of an element is defined as the weighted mean mass of all the naturally occurring isotopes of an element relative to one twelfth of the mass of a carbon – 12 atom. It has no unit. The relative molecular mass, RMM or Mr, is defined as the average mass of a molecule compared to one twelfth of the mass of one atom of carbon – 12. It has no unit. The molar mass, symbol, M: is defined as the mass of one mole of a substance. Unit is g mol-1. The molecular formula: the formula which shows the actual number of atoms of each element in a molecule of f The empirical formula: the formula which shows the simplest whole number ratio of atoms of each element in a particle of the substance. Solution: is a solute dissolved in a solvent. Solute: is the dissolved substance. Solvent: is the substance that does the dissolving. Concentration: is the amount of solute dissolved in a known volume of solution. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Chapter 11 Precision: refers to how close several experimental measurements of the same quantity are to each other. Accuracy refers to how close a precise reading is to the true value (or the generally accepted or literature value). Systematic errors: are due to identifiable causes and can, in principle, be identified, quantified and, if possible, eliminated. Errors of this type usually result in measured values that are consistently too high or too low. These errors may be due to the apparatus itself, or they may be due to the way in which the readings are taken. Random errors: they occur if there is an equal probability of the reading being high or low from one measurement to the next. Random errors are due to chance variations over which you, as a student, have little or no control. They cannot always be identified. Because they are random, they can be reduced through repeated measurements, whereas repeated measurements will not reduce a systematic error. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Chapter Two: The atomic number (Z) = the number of protons in the nucleus of the atom. The mass number (A) = the number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of the atom. Isotopes: are atoms of the same element having the same number of protons or the same atomic number but having different numbers of neutrons or different mass numbers. The valence electrons: the electrons in the highest (outer) main energy level (last energy level filled with electrons). Continuous spectrum: the spectrum that contains all the frequencies or all the colors of the visible light. Line spectrum: the spectrum that consists of a series of separate (discrete) lines that have specific colors (wavelengths/ frequencies) and that the lines become closer together (converge) towards the high energy end(the high frequency end / the shorter wavelength end / the violet end of the spectrum). ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Chapter Three Periodicity: the repeating pattern of physical and chemical properties shown by the different periods and groups in the periodic table. The group number: the vertical columns in the periodic table which represent the number of valence electrons in the outermost shell. The period number: the horizontal rows in the periodic table which represent the number of occupied main energy levels in an element The atomic radius is defined as half the distance between the nuclei of two bonded atoms of the same element. Electronegativity: a measure of the ability of an atom to attract an electron pair or a bonding pair in a covalent bond. Ionization Energy: the minimum energy required to remove one electron from outermost shell of an isolated gaseous atom. X(g)® X+(g) + e- Volatility: the ability of a substance to escape or evaporate easily from a container. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Chapter Four: Ionic Bond: the electrostatic forces of attraction between oppositely charged ions which results from transfer of electrons. Covalent bond: electrostatic force of attraction between positively charged nuclei and shared electron pairs of electrons (bonding pairs) and it results from sharing of electrons between atoms. Dative covalent bond (coordinate covalent bond): the covalent bond in which both electrons are donated by one species or atom. Polar covalent bond indicates that bonding electrons are not equally distributed between the atoms in the bond (non–symmetrical distribution of electron cloud and ∆EN doesn’t = 0)) and that the more electronegative atom will have the greater electron density. This relatively small difference in charge is represented by partial positive and partial negative charges (δ+ and δ-). It is sometimes called dipole. Polar covalent molecule: the molecule in which one or more atoms is slightly negative and one atom or more is slightly positive that makes the bonds polarities don’t cancel each other (net dipole don’t = zero) Nonpolar covalent bond: the bond that indicates that bonding electrons are equally distributed between the two atoms (symmetrical distribution of electron cloud). The bond formed when the atoms in a molecule are alike and the bonding electrons are shared equally. (∆EN = 0) Non polar molecules: the electrons can at any moment be unevenly spread and a non symmetric charge distribution would exist within the molecule. This produces temporary instantaneous dipoles called Van der Waal's forces of attraction between molecules. Van der Waal's forces of attraction: An instantaneous (temporary) weak electrostatic attraction between the temporary induced dipoles. Dipole–dipole attractions a permanent intermolecular forces that arise from simple electrostatic attractions between molecular dipoles. It is found between polar molecules except those which have hydrogen bond. Hydrogen bond: a permanent intermolecular forces that arise from simple electrostatic attractions between molecular dipoles. It can be considered to be a relatively strong intermolecular force of attraction in which a hydrogen atom that is covalently bonded to a very electronegative atom (N, O or F) is also weakly bonded to an unshared pair of electrons of an electronegative atom. It is found between polar molecules Metallic bond is the electrostatic attraction between a sea of delocalized valence electrons and the positive metal ions (cations). ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Chapter Five: Enthalpy change (∆H) is defined as [the enthalpy of products] – [enthalpy of reactants]. Standard enthalpy change (∆HӨ): is defined as [the enthalpy of products] – [enthalpy of reactants] at standard conditions - pressure = 1.01 × 102 KPa and temperature = 298 K. Exothermic Reaction: the reaction, in which energy is released to the surroundings; the products have a lower enthalpy (energy) than reactants. The reaction has a negative ∆H Endothermic reaction: the reaction, in which energy is absorbed from the surroundings; the products have a higher enthalpy (energy) than reactants. The reaction has positive ∆H. Heat: is a measure of the total energy in a given amount of substance and there fore it depends on the amount of substance present. Temperature: it represents the average kinetic energy of particles in the substance but it is independent of the amount of substance present The standard enthalpy change of combustion, ∆HӨc, is the enthalpy change when one mole of a substance is completely combusted in oxygen under standard conditions at 298 K (25 oC) and 1.01 X 102 KPa (1 atm pressure). Average bond enthalpy: is defined as the amount of energy required to break one mole of covalent bonds in the gaseous state or in a gaseous substance where average means that each value is the average of the enthalpies for a specific bond calculated from a range of similar compounds. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Chapter Six: The rate of a chemical reaction: the decrease in the concentration of a reactant per unit of time OR the increase in the concentration of a product per unit of time. Activation energy (Ea): is defined as the minimum energy required for a reaction to occur. Catalyst: is defined as substance that increases the rate of a chemical reaction without being chemically changed at the end of the reaction. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Chapter 7 Dynamic Equilibrium: the reaction in which both reactants and products keep reacting and the reaction proceeds in both directions. Reversible reaction: the reaction which proceeds in both direction and never goes to completion. Once some products are formed the reverse reaction can take place to reform the reactants. Closed System: is the system in which neither matter nor energy can be lost or gained from the system, that is, the macroscopic properties remain constant. If the system is open some of the products from the reaction could escape and equilibrium would never be reached. Homogenous equilibrium: is the one in which all the reactants and the products are in the same phase or state. Heterogeneous equilibrium: is the one in which the reactants and the products are not in the same phase or state. Le Chatelier principle: If a system at equilibrium is disturbed, the equilibrium moves in the direction which tends to reduce the disturbance or the stress. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Chapter 8: Bronsted–Lowry acid is defined as a proton (H+1) donor. Bronsted –Lowry base or an alkali is defined as a proton (H+1) acceptor. The conjugate base is the species (base) remaining after the acid has lost a proton. The conjugate acid is the species (acid) formed after the base has accepted a proton. Conjugate acid–base pair is defined as a pair that differs by a proton, H+1. Monoprotic acid is defined as an acid that contains one replaceable hydrogen atom per molecule. Diprotic acid: is defined as an acid that contains two replaceable hydrogen atoms per molecule. Triprotic acid: is defined as an acid that contains three replaceable hydrogen atoms per molecule. Polyprotic acid is defined as an acid that contains more than one replaceable hydrogen atom per molecule. Amphoteric substance: a substance that acts as an acid in one instant and as a base in another instant. Lewis acid is defined as an electron pair acceptor. Lewis base is defined as an electron pair donor. Dative covalent bond (coordinate covalent bond): the covalent bond in which both electrons are provided by one species. Alkalis: the bases which are soluble in water. The pH is defined as pH = – log10 [H3O+1] or minus the logarithm to the base ten of the hydrogen ion concentration. Strong acid is defined as an acid that ionizes or dissociates completely in water. It is called a strong electrolyte. Its complete ionization produces a lot of H3O+1 ions. Weak acid is defined as an acid that ionizes or dissociates partially in water. It is called a weak electrolyte. Its partial ionization produces a small concentration of H3O+1 ions. Strong alkali is defined as an alkali that ionizes or dissociates completely in water. It is called a strong electrolyte. Its complete ionization produces a lot of OH-1 ions. Weak alkali is defined as an alkali that ionizes or dissociates partially in water. It is called a weak electrolyte. Its partial ionization produces a small concentration of OH-1 ions. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Chapter 9 Definition of oxidation and reduction in terms of electron(s) transfer: Oxidation: the loss of electrons. Reduction: the gain of electrons. Definition of oxidation and reduction in terms of oxidation number: Oxidation: the increase in the oxidation number. Reduction: the decrease in the oxidation number. Redox reaction is defined as a chemical reaction in which one substance is oxidized and at the same time another substance is reduced. Reducing agent is defined as the species that loses electrons (oxidized). Oxidizing agent is defined as the species that gains electrons (reduced). ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Chapter 10 Structural formula shows the bonding between atoms in the molecule (shows unambiguously how the atoms are arranged together. Full structural formula (sometimes called a graphic formula or displayed formula) shows every atom and bond. Condensed structural formula can omit bonds between atoms and can show identical groups bracketed together, Functional group is defined as an atom or a group of atoms responsible for the characteristic reactions of the molecule or the homologous series. Homologous series is defined as a group of organic compounds or as a series of organic chemicals with same general formula where neighboring members differ by CH2 unit. Alkanes are saturated hydrocarbons in which all the bonds between carbon atoms are single bonds. Alkenes are unsaturated hydrocarbons characterized by the presence of at least one carbon – carbon double bond. Primary alcohols: R-CH2-OH: the alcohol in which the carbon atom that is directly bonded to the functional group OH is surrounded by one alkyl group and two H atoms. Secondary alcohols: R2-CH-OH: the alcohol in which the carbon atom that is directly bonded to the functional group OH is surrounded by two alkyl groups and one H atom. Tertiary alcohols: R3-C-OH: The C atom that is directly bonded to the functional group OH is surrounded by three alkyl groups and no H atoms. Primary halogenoalkanes: R-CH2-X: The halogenoalkane in which the carbon atom that is directly bonded to the functional group X is surrounded by one alkyl group and two H atoms. Secondary halogenoalkanes: R2-CH-X: The halogenoalkane in which the carbon atom that is directly bonded to the functional group X is surrounded by two alkyl groups and one H atom. Tertiary halogenoalkanes: R3-C-X: The halogenoalkane in which the carbon atom that is directly bonded to the functional group X is surrounded by three alkyl groups and no H atoms. Isomers (Isomerism): are molecules with the same molecular formula but they have different structural formulas. They differ in the sequence in which the atoms are joined together. Structural isomers: molecules with the same molecular formula but they have different structural formulas and they belong to the same homologous series. Functional group isomers: molecules with the same molecular formula but they have different structural formulas but they belong to different homologous series. Substitution: is defined as replacement of one atom or group in a molecule by another. In this reaction one hydrogen atom is replaced by one halogen atom. Homolytic fission is defined as breaking of a covalent bond to give two fragments with an electron each or bond breaking in which each product takes one electron from the bond. The products from homolytic fission are called free radicals. Free radical is defined as a species with an unpaired (single) electron. They are highly reactive. Examples of free radicals: Cl•, Br• , CH3• and C2H5•. Heterolytic fission is defined as breaking of a covalent bond in a way so that the more electronegative atom of the two atoms joined by the bond takes both of the electrons to form an anion and the less electronegative atom forms a cation. Addition reaction: the reaction in which the double bond of an alkene is broken down. Addition across a double bond occurs at both C atoms. Bromine Test (Bromination): The usual test for the presence of a double bond is to add bromine water to the compound. If a double bond is present, the bromine water changes color from orange to colorless. Bromination can be used to distinguish between alkanes and alkenes. Alkenes react with bromine water and decolorize it (changes color from orange to colorless) while alkanes have no effect on the color of bromine water. Polymers: are defined as long chain molecules that are formed by the joining together of a large number of small molecules called monomers. Polymers are usually referred to as plastics. Nucleophile is a reagent that is neutral or negatively charged that has non – bonding pair of electrons. Typical nucleophiles are OH-1, CN-1 and NH3. Nucleophilic substitution reaction is defined as replacement of an atom or group in a molecule by a species with a lone pair of electrons. In these reactions nucleophiles act as Lewis bases, because they donate a pair of electrons. To show the movement of a pair of electrons, Addition polymerization: is defined as a process in which unsaturated monomers combine to form a polymer without the elimination of any atoms or molecules. In this type of polymerization the monomers contain double bonds and in the addition reaction the double bonds are replaced with single bonds between the monomers. This means that the structural feature needed in the monomer is the presence of a carbon – carbon double bond. SN1 stands for: S: substitution N: Nucleophilic 1: unimolecular slow step SN2 stands for: S: substitution N: Nucleophilic 2: bimolecular slow step
  37. 1 point
    Hey, my chemistry teacher has been teaching this syllabus since 2001, he told me there are 4 main things when it comes to officials Definitions Graphs Formulas (These account for almost 60% of the grade) Explanations account for 40% so my biggest tip is, to study the main definitions, i will attach them, my teacher sent ALL the definitions you need to know for SL and HL study the graphs ( unit 1 & in kinetics SL + HL and in Acids and Bases) Learn how to solve equations [ this will help you mostly in unit 1, energetics, kinetics, equilibrium, acids and bases, and redox) the rest are bonding and organic, you will need to MEMORIZE them this will only take about 4 hours tomorrow, since tmw is your last day hope this was helpful
  38. 1 point
    Hey, reflection should be happening throughout your IA. It should be very evident in your conclusion, but you need to be making continuous reference to it. The most important thing to do is address whether you met the aim of the IA that you stated in the introduction. Significance and implications of your IA should be mentioned at the end- that is, what does your model of population imply for humanity in terms of resources, living space etc? Make it really evident why your topic is significant, and if possible, place it in an academic context (are there any other population models that yours contradicts with? Agrees with? Why? Go into as much detail as seems relevant.) Reflection also means, though, that you address limitations- as you say already have- like mentioning factors that you didn't or couldn't take into account. Extensions come into play here- if someone else took up your topic, what research could they do? How could work be built upon yours? These things don't have to follow a rigid structure, but everything should pop up somewhere. I hope that helps!
  39. 1 point
    Question bank, question bank, question bank. That is all. Literally! IB questions for chemistry are by default (except for paper 3) going to end up being slightly different angles on the same question - different chemicals but the same theory, for instance. Memorise everything which needs memorising and then kick in with the practice, especially for calculations. Do it really ahead of time as well as Chemistry is one of the worst exams to stress about. I did my papers on a zillion cups of tea and like 4 hours sleep sandwiched between two other exams and had to spend so long learning the night before that I fell asleep for ten minutes in Paper 2! Be prepared @[email protected] Honestly, Chemistry is evil Oh and also, they are VERY harsh with chemistry coursework. I had mine severely downgraded from what my teacher had given me (3 grades down from 7 --> 4!!) so really make sure you're on target as it can really drag your overall grade down. All in all: if I could go back in time I would've done more past paper questions and tried way harder with my coursework.
  40. 1 point
  41. 1 point
    I rea dthe examiner's report for that poem, and they made notes similar to these: -Many students tried to connect the poem with the Cold War/Cuban Missile Crisis/Vietnam War because of it's publication date. Don't do that. -Mnay students completely ignored the humour in "Neither the sore displeasure/Of the U. S. Mail/Nor all my threats and warnings". Comment on that. -Do comment on the attitude of the poet towards the wasps -Comment on onomatopoeia in the poem -The poem is not just about wasps, but the last few lines connect it to a bigger theme. Find that theme, and When looking at an unseen commentary, take 20 minutes or so to just annotate, highlight and make ntoes on the poem. Then write out the rough plan for your commentary. When you write your commentary, make the starting sentence of each paragraph a topic sentence. It should introduce the central idea in the pragraph (e.g. The poet's personification of the wasps as_______ creates an image of_____ and reveals his attitude towards the creatures to be one of__________"). Then give examples and explain those examples. In your introduction, don't list the literaray devices the poet uses e.g In this poem, the poet uses alliteration, personification, tone and rhythm to create a hostile attitude towards the wasps, and juxtapositions this with his tender feelings towards their movements. A list does nothing for your essay. Instead, introduce the central idea of the poem in your introduction (and you can use one literary device to make the point) e.g. The poet conveys the theme of _____ through his use of juxtapositioning, and builds up an image of _______ throughout the poem. An overall effect of ________ is created through the harsh words and humur in the poem". When the criteria says "show personal response", you don't automatically get marks for that just by syaing "I think that". In fact, it sounds better if you don't. You can show personal repsonse by describing the effect the literary devices and mood of the poem have on the reader, and by including sentences such as "The onomatopoeic sound of "savagely a-hum" may reflect________". The "may" there shows that you are aware that there are different interpretations of the poem. Finally, in your conclusion you should sum up what you wrote before, but don't list literary devices. Summarise the overall impression and effect of the poem on the reader (but don't just repeat your introduction, write it in different words). Throughout the poem, you should be analysing the effect of various literary devices and images on the reader. Don't just say "There is onomatopoeia in this line": Why is it there? What does it do for the poem? Try to come up with more original phrases than "Enjambement makes the poem flow" and never say "This creates strong imagery in the reader's head". Those are cliche. Elaborate, and say something like "The enjambement in the poem reflects the movement of the waves and creates a strong feeling of movement in the poem, bringing it to life" or "The image of a ravenous wolf reinforces the hunger the poet is feeling, and amplifies his desire for food". Be as descriptive as possible.
  42. 1 point
    Hi, look at www.freeexampapers.com There are some past papers for German ab initio. Good luck!
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