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  1. 2 points
    Hey! Honestly, you have to put your own mental health first sometimes. Only you know what you are going through and how you feel. And if you truly feel like you won't be able to cope with the stress, maybe really consider doing the normal Canadian curriculum. Do you plan on going internationally for university? If not, the Canadian high school curriculum will be more than enough for Canadian universities. Hope this helped!
  2. 2 points
    I can talk a bit more about Newton's Third law, specifically, it connects two forces i) APPLIED TO TWO DIFFERENT OBJECTS ii) in opposite directions iii) with equal magnitude. Every force has a force described by this Law (but it gets weird when discussing magnetic forces, or when you consider 'forces' causing the universe to expand.) The Newton's Third Law applied to Earth pulling you down, is actually you pulling Earth up! The most common place this Law is particularly useful in explaining everyday phenomena is when it applies to friction. You know how on icy, or very low friction conditions, you can hardly control the movement? The reason we can walk, or drive, is that we apply a backward friction force on the ground, so the ground applies a forward friction force on us. This is why @King112 draw Third Law perpendicular to normal force, because in this plane it is most useful. In that diagram, the Third Law force of the normal force is the object pushing on the ground (as opposed to the force of ground pushing on the object)
  3. 2 points
    Normal Force is a perpendicular force (refer attached sketch). It is perpendicular to the surface, even if it's on a slope (again sketch). The Third law states that every action has an equal and opposite reaction. So in some cases, the normal force can be the force mentioned in the third law, but not always. In the example attached, the normal force is perpendicular to the surface (indicated by the solid arrow). The ball is rolling down a slope, and the force described by Newton's third law is Friction (indicated by the dotted arrow with the "Third Law" label) I hope this helps (and is right; not studied physics since I graduated 2 years ago)
  4. 2 points
    Think about it, you will still get stressed if you drop DP and join a normal program. Even though the normal program may not be as stressful as the one in DP, you will still be pulling some all-nighters occasionally because things are only going get tougher. So, either way, you are unable to escape all of this stress. What you can do is learn to manage your emotions and find ways to tackle your stress. Personally, I like listening to music while doing my work. It not only helps me cope with my stress, it also makes me more focused. Just remember, you aren't the only one experiencing this stress as everyone around you are probably in the same predicament as you. Don't worry about it too much! Like what someone else already said, you could start preparing for IB during the holidays to give yourself an edge in the first year of IB. Hope this helps!
  5. 2 points
    As far as I know the rules for History have not changed substantially, so I'm assuming you still have those 5 sections and having to answer two questions from two different sections in 1.5 hours total. When I prepped for Paper 2, I looked at past exam papers at length and figured out which questions ALWAYS come. What I found was there is always a question on the World Wars in Section 1, every year the subject of the question alternated i.e. causes, consequences or nature of the World Wars. So I studied the causes and consequences of the WWs at length and did just enough for Nature of Warfare. In 2010, it just so happened that the question was about Nature, but I knew enough to bullsh!t my way through. The other question that always turned up was in the Cold War section, there was ALWAYS a question on the Origins/Causes of the Cold War. So I prepped for that question extensively as well. This question turned up just as I expected it to. In terms of the actual exam, you have 45 minutes to write each essay, which is very little time. I suggest writing both essay outlines before you start writing the examination in as little time as possible. I wrote my Outlines in 6 minutes flat for both essays and then started writing, giving me roughly 42 minutes to write each essay. The actual body of the essay should be something like this: Introduction: Not more than two sentences from which the second sentence should be a succinct description of your thesis. Body Paragraph: First sentence should be a descriptor of what exactly you want to prove in that particular body paragraph. You then say Historian X believed Nationalism was a Cause for WW1 and WW2. This essay finds that Nationalism was more of a Cause of WW2 in Germany and WW1 in France because of this... Therefore Historian X is right in this regard, but wrong in that regard. Your last sentence is a concluding sentence that connects the topic back to the thesis of your essay and explains briefly the purpose of including this analysis in your essay. You should generally have 3-4 body paragraphs, however, when I say body paragraphs, I mean important points as subtheses. You can very much divide each subthesis into one, two, or more body paragraphs as you discuss them, something I often did, which resulted in my History essays having 6-9 body paragraphs in general. An important technique to keep in mind when writing about historic events and assuring that you've analysed them sufficiently is ID/MHS = Identification AND Major Historical Signifiance. Every time you mention an important happening in an essay i.e. say the Cuban Missile Crisis, the Six Day War '67, The U2 Incident '62. You should always identify the event in one line and explain what happened and then spend alteast one to two sentences outlining its major historical significance in the context of your essay and thesis. This ensures effective analysis. Conclusion: I'm sure you know how to write an effective conclusion. Briefly summarise your points throughout your essay, not more than 3-4 short sentences. It is important that you restate your thesis, then show through brief discussion of the body paragraphs that you have proven it in some manner. That should ensure an effective structure and provided you put in sufficient content and analysis, a formidable essay.
  6. 1 point
    I keep getting the same question, about how to do well in HL Biology, so thought I should just put it out in a topic. Remember that this is what I am predicted, not sure what the real one is. From what I have seen these are the important points. 1) TRY to like it..and find interest in it. It really helps. If you do like Biology then that’s a bonus! 2) NEVER EVER go to a lesson before you are certain you understand the things covered in the previous one. A main factor of doing bad is keeping things to just gather up on you, and before an exam you struggle to unerstand soo many things when you should be doing past papers. Do whatever it takes to understand something, trust me, it may sound like a pain in the ass but its very important, take a word from me. Having said this, it happens sometimes that you understand something only after you learn another, as it completes each other. However, what I mean is, don’t leave the MAIN CONCEPT not understood! 3) Make good notes that you can go back to anytime. I used to rewrite notes if they are bad and unclear. Having clear good complete notes is an important factor. 4) Read over your notes every now and then. It is really nice to find out that you remember the things when you’re doing the revision, it gives you confidence. On the other hand, if you only touch your notes before an exam, you come to revise and you find that you have forgotten many things, it crushed me in other subjects…so don’t want it happening to you. 5) Ask your teacher anything, I used to ware out my teacher with my questions (yeah I know Aboo ), but it all came out good, so yeah. A good teacher wouldn’t mind any of your questions!  6)You can try reading the topic before you start it, thats is what I used to do. 7) I recommend the OXFORD Study Guide, I found it really useful and very very helpful. So you may want to get that. AND THE MOST IMPORTANT THING EVER: 8) FOLLOW YOUR SYLABUS POINT BY POINT. You can never go wrong with the syllabus. ANYTHING that’s ever going to be asked in the exam is in the syllabus, except for Data Analysis in the SECTION A of PAPER 2. Know the syllabus point by point, it’s vital and you will do good trust me. If you have any question about anything in Biology, SL & HL, you can always ask around here and I promise to answer once I see it. Biology Help thread For last minute people: Why oh why did you leave yourself till the last minute? You have to go through the syllabus even if you have 3 days left. Go through it and at least get a clear idea about them rather than going blank to the exam. For Paper 1, I would only revise 'obj 1 and 2' points, 'obj 3' wont really come up a lot. For Paper 2, you should still be remembering the 'obj 1 and 2' from Paper 1, so concentrate on 'obj 3' points, they are the 6-8 mark questions you get in some questions in section B. Go through past papers even on the night of the exam, it still helps trust me. Some questions are repeated every year (or almost), so you may get lucky and do a question that you'll find in the exam the next day. Once again, if you don't understand something, please ask. I may have missed some of the things, so I will put them down when I remember more. Goodluck to you all!
  7. 1 point
    Update (May 2014) - Added all of topic 3: Thermal Physics I've been an IB teacher for many years, and enjoy helping out more than just my own students. With this in mind, I am working on a series of free videos on my own studynova website (they are all free there, plus you can get all the notes I make), but am also mirroring them on Youtube. These videos are about specific topics within the IB Physics SL or HL curriculum. So if there are specific topics that you'd like to see done in detail with lots of examples, just post it in this thread. I'll take a look and see if there is any overwhelming consensus on any topics, and then start doing videos on those ones. I can go over an entire topic or just focus on a specific area within a topic. Just post your request and I'll see what I can do. Keep in mind there's only one of me, so I will do topics that have overwhelming request for them. I'm finally done with my M.Sc. in Astrophysics, so I have more time to devote to videos. Below, you'll see a list of the topics, and the ones I've done so far will be in bold. If I don't get to your request right away, just be patient. I'll get to as many as I can. So far, I have done Topic 2 (Mechanics), Topic 13 (Quantum and Nuclear) - this one is also an SL option, and Option E (Astrophysics). The Astrophysics option I did for the entire SL and HL, so it's relevant for all of you. How do you get to the videos on youtube? Just click on the link below - it goes to my youtube channel. From there, click on the different playlists that are relevant to you. http://www.youtube.com/user/CampbellMitch I wrote my own astrophysics syllabus and put up videos for that as well. For those, I added things that are NOT on the current IB syllabus, although I've been working with the IBO on the new syllabus that will come out in 2014. They said they'll be using the new stuff. Hurray! -Mitch Physics SL and Physics HL topics (core: everyone needs these topics) Topic 1: Physics and physical measurement (measurement, uncertainties, vectors, scalars) Topic 2: Mechanics (kinematics, forces, work, energy, power, circular motion) Topic 3: Thermal Physics (temp, internal energy, heat, specific heat capacity, phase changes) Topic 4: Oscillations and waves (simple harmonic motion, forced oscillations, resonance, wave characteristics, wave properties) Topic 5: Electric currents (electric potential difference, current, resistance, electric circuits) Topic 6: Fields and forces (gravitational-, electric-, and magnetic forces and fields) Topic 7: Atomic and nuclear physics (atom, radioactive decay, nuclear reactions, fission, fusion) Topic 8: Energy, power, climate change (energy degradation, power generation, world energy sources, fossil fuels, non-fossil fuels, greenhouse effect, global warming) Physics HL topics (additional higher level that SL students don't need) Topic 9: Motion in fields (projectile motion, gravitational field, potential, and energy, electric field, potential, and energy, orbital motion) Topic 10: Thermal Physics (thermodynamics, thermal processes, second law of thermodynamics, entropy) Topic 11: Wave phenomena (standing waves, Doppler effect, diffraction, resolution, polarization) Topic 12: Electromagnetic induction (induced emf, AC current, transmission of electrical power) Topic 13: Quantum physics and nuclear physics (De Broglie, Heisenberg, Bohr, Schroedinger, half-life and decay constant alpha) Topic 14: Digital technology (analogue and digital signals, data capture, CCD) Options that I'm also considering doing: SL only – most of these are almost identical to HL topics above: Option A: Sight and Wave Phenomena Option B: Quantum and nuclear Physics Option C: Digital Technology For both SL and HL (HL has extra stuff) Option E: Astrophysics (introduction to the universe, stellar radiation and types, distances, cosmology). **I added extra astrophysics information that is NOT on the IB syllabus - it covers black holes, dark matter, astrobiology and exoplanets, and it is a separate playlist. For only HL: Option H: Relativity (special relativity, relativistic kinematics, momentum and energy, general relativity basics)
  8. 1 point
    No problem One more thing to add: I remember my English teacher telling us that it will look very impressive if you can remember small stuff like chapter numbers.
  9. 1 point
    Thank you so much both of you for your advice! I am so sorry I didn't reply sooner, I was really stressed about my Biology IA, but I've done that now phewww! I really appreciate the responses. I am going to get going on revision this week and try and identify the key moments of the books and do some practice commentaries like suggested! Thanks a million, I feel a lot more confident now 😁
  10. 1 point
    Wow, thank you so much for your help! I really appreciate all your points Should I be worried that the stress may lead to my poor performance?
  11. 1 point
    30% is like a 3 and if you did well in IA it could be a 4. Paper 3 is just focused on one topic. Just look over your notes, do the practice problems in the book and try your best!
  12. 1 point
    Mao's 100 Flowers Campaign is a very interesting topic, however I would suggest you go more in depth about the subject since it's still broad. Are you going to go more in-depth with political effects? Social effects on a specific group of people? If it's too difficult for you to easily organize and pinpoint where to start, I think it's a good signal that your question is too broad. As for structuring an EE itself, a good idea for structuring EEs is thinking of it as buckets: Your thesis is your main answer, and so that is your biggest bucket. Inside that bucket are multiple smaller buckets, which are you general arguments and perspectives. Since you're writing a history EE, it's valuable to remember to make counterarguments, so make sure you make one or two buckets there with a counterargument. Within these buckets are even smaller buckets, which are supporting details that help you justify your general arguments. Within these supporting details should be your analysis and evidence from your sources. It can be overwhelming to write a 4,000 word essay, however just think of it as your usual 1,000 word essays piled into one big essay, each relating to one another in some shape or form. You'll be surprised once you go from "oh gosh, how do I fill these pages" to "I need to cut so many words I wrote so much".
  13. 1 point
    No matter what you put on the cover sheet, IB will flip through each booklet and make sure they grade everything you have attempted.
  14. 1 point
    Here are the links to my website and YouTube channel. I have a full range of videos for both SL and HL topics including options A, B, C and D. Website: http://www.msjchem.com/ YouTube channel: https://www.youtube.com/user/mikesugiyamajones Option A: Option B: Option C:
  15. 1 point
    YES THESE HAVE BEEN MY CHEM VIDEOS OF CHOICE. I discovered this while I was doing my Organic Chemistry unit, and as someone who is actually hopeless at memorisation and general Organic/Biology cramming, the 7 I received for the unit after watching these videos was a miraculous feat. Of course, it did include the longest period I had ever studied for a unit test, but honestly, without MSJ videos I would've died.
  16. 1 point
    You should first identify the specific vector math that will be used, eg distances, transformations. Then you should evaluate whether you know what to say. Finally you can connect it to video games (an application). It is risky to find an application before looking at the specific math you want to explore.
  17. 1 point
    Have you thought about people social sciences not taking sciences? Have you seen how some lawyers and politicians who have less than high school science and math knowledge? It would be very hard to argue that they should take math and science courses if you say an engineer should not take social science courses. I am not trying to dismiss your arguments but hopefully you do see IB's reasoning and attempt to make students take courses from multiple disciplines. On this site, you may not find people who share your view projecting their voices as loudly as you had hoped but certainly your view is valid but you should also be willing to see others' perspectives. Free time is purely based on your previous academic preparations and work ethic. IB is only a small factor.
  18. 1 point
    Thanks for the reply f0xes, But I can't seem to find detailed explanation for the answers. I have the answers to them in my Physics textbook too. Regards Shrish.V
  19. 1 point
    If you make an account here (http://ibdiploma.cambridge.org/) and select the Tsokos book as one of "your books", you can access all the extra online resources ie: the test yourself solutions! It's free and easy to do, but if you're having trouble making an account, I'd be happy to send you the pdf for the specific test yourself chapter.
  20. 1 point
  21. 1 point
    Thanks! I did kind of stick to urban, though I'm not exactly sure. This is my topic. Not sure what topic it belongs to though. What age groups utilise public transport more often in Oakville? Why: This study will show that a particular age group does not use public transport as much. A survey can be conducted to find out why certain age groups use or do not use public transport. Using these results, inferences can be made as to how to improve public transportation for these age groups (such as community shuttles in Vancouver, etc.)
  22. 1 point
    I got a 19/20 on my presentation, it was on the Placebo effect. I don't know if different schools have different formats of presentation, but ours was in class and it needed some rehearsing and memorizing versus a video perhaps. If anyone wants the script and the outline, feel free to PM me!~
  23. 1 point
    One day in English class, my English teacher had offered to come in before school os that we could finish writing our essays. We didn't have to, but being the IBs we were, 28/30 people (including me ) showed up early. When some other teachers passed by our class before school started, they were amazed that so many people came in early to work. My teacher explained that we wanted to finish our essays, but they were still surprised to see so many people there, telling us how we were so dedicated, good students, etc. Then our teacher said "Oh they're in IB". The teachers then said "ohhhhhhhhhhhhhhh" and then walked away. That was an EPIC moment. Our class was laughing for at least 5 minutes after.
  24. 1 point
    Skip to... Paper 1 Paper 2 WL1 Literary features Useful Links (cribbed off sweetnsimple786, thanks!) World Literature 1 Marking Criteria World Literature 2 Marking Criteria Other Links (posted by Julie) Literary Analysis and Writing Technical Points Tips for Writing A1 Unseen Commentaries (Paper 1) 1. Learn how YOU work best Unless you've sussed it out for yourself already, your aim throughout the two years of IB should be to establish how you best approach this sort of essay. Everybody prefers to deal with it differently and has their own style -- the ultimate aim for anybody is to produce an essay with a cohesive, well-supported argument, a sound structure, doesn't skip any major points and can be completed within the allotted time. Simple, right? There are two major areas in which people differ. The first is planning. How much time do you personally need to plan? Some people like to invest a massive amount of their time into it (e.g. for a 2 hour paper at HL they might spend half an hour or more planning it) and some people much less time, for instance 5 or 10 minutes. Obviously some has to take place as you have to read the poem and formulate an argument; whether you then choose to go straight ahead and start writing (usually to maximise the amount you can write down and give yourself leeway to change things) or whether you like to plan out exactly what you're going to say when (to make sure you have a good structure and are focussed), it's not a big deal. You have to work out for yourself what the optimum sort of time is going to be. The second area is the style in which you deal with the text. This can either be done by theme (and incidentally tends to pair well with somebody who plans a lot) in which major points of discussion are stuck into dedicated paragraphs, or line-by-line which is literally dealing with the text in a linear fashion and therefore tends to require a lot less forethought. Each of these has its weaknesses -- for the former you can easily find yourself spotting something you should've discussed earlier but will then need to break your structure in order to include. You're less likely to come across things as you're writing, can write comparatively 'shallow' essays (i.e. less deep analysis) and of course you do need to plan things like crazy. An acronym often related to this is SCASI (Setting/Character/Action/Style/Ideas), where you do roughly a section of your essay on each of those. Weaknesses related to the line-by-line are largely time management (you end up writing a lot more) and making sure you pick up on overarching themes as well as structuring it in a cohesive manner. Use any practice commentaries you do to test these out! Which do you prefer? More importantly, with which of these methods/time distributions do you get the best results grades-wise? You might be at an extreme or somewhere in the middle, but you're going to have a style which suits you and it's extremely important you're secure and confident in your personal approach before you enter the exam. On a final note, a lot of teachers will tell you that there's only one way to write a commentary. This is wrong. I've seen 7s with good employment of both these styles and the examiners will reward essays which fulfil the marking criteria, not your teacher's favourite way of doing it. 2. Don't pick between poetry/prose in advance This might seem reasonably obvious, but there is a considerable chance that the poem/prose which comes up will not be to your liking. With the poetry you might not understand it... and with the prose you might not really see what there is to write. There are exceptions to this rule, some people know what they're doing and can go for their favourite every time, but as a general rule if you don't know 100% that you are an exception (and you'll know, trust me!) my advice is to practice both. Don't pick prose or poetry prior to seeing what they are like, that's a pretty crazy tactic because you're taking away your own options! 3. Have a line of argument This gives your essay purpose, direction and is something for you to constantly refer back to. It's easier to do an analysis if you treat the whole essay as building up the case for WHY your analysis is correct. Imagine that you've announced "this poem is about X and now I'm going to show you why". This way you'll analyse, you'll give examples and you'll have cohesion because your essay will keep returning to the same central points. At no point in the exam should you be sitting scratching your head wondering where on earth to go next. You have an introduction (your declaration and brief overview of why you believe X to be the case) and a conclusion (briefly how you believe you've proved it to be so). Excellent stuff, having a line of argument. 4. Make sure your argument makes sense If I am correct, in the USA and some other places, they call an argument a thesis statement. Whatever. Call it what you like, it is extremely important that you project your own 'vision' or interpretation of the poetry/prose. What this does NOT under any circumstances mean is that you see one bit of a line, think "ooo I like that idea!" and start inventing things or deciding that the word 'interpretation' is some kind of arty excuse for making mystical-sounding comments. World Literature is an analytical subject at heart, and whilst there's no technical right and wrong in that several versions of something can be correct, there's definitely a wrong and the word for that is misinterpretation. You do not want to misinterpret the whole thing. Some people are lucky and will never misinterpret because it comes naturally to them; for other people, no worries, there is a litmus test. Decide what you think the main theme of the poem/prose is and then with your decision in mind, and prior to writing anything, go through the whole text and think at every point "does my interpretation DEFINITELY make sense in light of this section?". Sometimes you might find something contradictory -- for instance a note of joy in a poem which is otherwise quite depressing. In that case, your argument can no longer be that the whole poem is centred around bitterness (or whatever, I'm making this up) but rather you'll have to alter your argument to the poem being about the randomness of fate (because on reflection it turns out that the contrast between the depression and the joy makes this the message you receive). Clearly this is an invented example, but the point I'm trying to get at is that the former interpretation wouldn't fit the whole text. The second interpretation DOES fit the whole text. Always make sure that your main line of argument fits everything, or your entire essay will be out. 5. Use language you understand Okay I'm not going to lie, some people say some really stupid things. If you don't know what a word means, don't know how a phrase is used (and this happens to some native speakers as well as non-native speakers) for the love of whatever higher being may or may not be out there… don't do it! Please. If you've been exposed to a lot of phrases around you in everyday life, and read a lot of books, you'll probably find this kind of thing like second nature to you, and you're very lucky. If not, please don't try and impress anybody. It's better to use straight forward sentences and make sure you're definitely getting your point across. You will not be rewarded for speaking with the kind of Elizabethan flourish which would've made Shakespeare proud of his handiwork. They're going to be more impressed by the whole thing making sense than by you using verbs in conjunction with the wrong prepositions etc. 6. PEE! Also go to the toilet before the exam. I always assume everybody has heard of this; if you haven't, listen up! PEE is the best way to approach anything. Point, Example, Explanation! Live by the code of PEE and you should never make a crappy point (because if it's crappy hopefully you'll realise your explanation sucks and therefore not write it) and never make a point without explaining it (without that extra E, PEE just wouldn't be the amusing urination-based acronym we all know and love, would it?). To break it down with a (flippant) example: Point --> Seamus Heaney (a poet) uses potato-based puns to enforce his love of potatoes Example --> He says: "Without potatoes/I would not be rooted in this life" (yes this is made up) Explanation --> The word "rooted" refers back both to the author's roots and also to the nature of potatoes themselves which are root vegetables. He also uses a very effective sentence structure to emphasise the significance of potatoes by making them the start of the phrase, the verb in the middle and then with "life" as the last word in the phrase, the stresses fall in such a way that the two seem linked…. etc etc etc. It's amazing what you can bull**** really 7. Manage your time wisely Okay I mentioned this with planning earlier. Know when you're going to have done stuff by and keep an eye on the clock. An essay is not an essay without a conclusion and all of its contents, and these things cannot be put into place if you run out of time! When I used to do my A1 essays I went line-by-line and said more or less to leave 5 mins at the end to conclude have 5 mins at the start to plan and intend to be halfway through the poem by the time I got halfway through my time. Never failed to finish an essay with this (very non-technical but useful) tactic. Don't be caught out. 8. Make points, don't score points! (aka don't drop in literary features if you don't know what you're doing) I wrote that mostly because it sounds catchy, but basically what I mean is that you should realise you get marks for making points. Not for using special words. Obviously you want to use some special words throughout (and by special words I mean the World Lit lingo: alliteration, metaphors, caesuras etc etc) but they should be coincidental with you making a point. I used to fit them in as part of the second E in my PEE. When explaining why my point was valid I would casually mention that it was mightily effective on account of the simile and so on. In other words, they can be slotted in casually. What you should avoid is point scoring, which is kinda like name dropping only using special words. Just because you know a word to describe a literary feature and what it means, it doesn't mean it's always going to be there! The major victim of people trying to point score is "irony". In actual fact, irony is not all that pervasive in literature. It crops up every now and again, but not particularly frequently and definitely not in 80%+ of things. I'm not going to bother inventing a statistic for how often it does crop up, but just remember it's not everywhere. DO NOT say something is 'an example of irony' unless you A) are sure it's definitely an example of irony and that you know what irony is B) are willing to explain how it's an example and why this is effective This goes for any special word. If you know something is effective but don't know the special word for it (and often there isn't one), there's no harm in explaining it out. It is better to do this than to invent things or to go out of your way to include literary features just for the sake of them being there! If something if effective, just explain why. You don't need a technical term for it every time, and if you see something you know the technical term for but it isn't really effective... don't go out of your way to mention it. Tips for Writing A1 Essay Responses (Paper 2) 1. Look at past questions and use them to break down your texts for revision If you look through past paper questions, you'll spot that the sorts of questions you receive will always be about generalised things. Off the top of my head, things like Setting, Character, Beginnings and Endings, Death, Love, Chronology etc. all tend to crop up with reassuring regularity. So, this is the way in which you should approach your texts when revising them. Remember that in the actual thing you'll come across one of these sorts of questions and you will either have to sit and think for the very first time of exactly how the minor characters influenced the play (...for example...) or you'll have handily thought of it all before. Hopefully you'll agree that the second scenario is much better than the first. My advice is therefore to go through all of your texts and pick out the main points to do with these themes. Not only will you familiarise yourself with the texts in the process, but you should also find that a lot of the points can be easily recycled into your actual essay in the exam and that's the aim. Get a piece of paper, head it up with the theme you're looking at and then divide it into columns. Think of a point from one of the texts and simultaneously whether that same point can be made in another text -- i.e. compare and contrast. You might draw a blank, or you might think "well they DO mention the minor characters, but they play more of a role in narrating the life of the main characters than in providing any of the action..." = et voila, a contrast! That kind of thing. 2. Prepare all of your texts Do not favouritise texts. You will note that the questions ask you to write about 2 or more of the works you have studied. So yes, technically you only have to learn about 2. What, however, if the question in the exam asks you about Death, and nobody dies in one of the texts. You'll be stuffed. Unless you can see forward in time to know what the question will be, don't do just 2 of the texts. Do all of them. Revising them isn't really very time-consuming or difficult, and at the end of the day you'll be able to make the best comparisons if you're able to choose the best texts to compare. Simple as. 3. Use the exam time as a guide to which texts to use Again going back to the "only doing 2 texts" thing, there is NO optimum number of texts to do. You can get a 7 comparing 2 of them, and you can get a 7 comparing all 4 of them. Also 3. It depends on the question you get and how much you know to be able to write! Sometimes you'll be able to say a lot about 2 texts, sometimes you'll be able to say a little about all 4. Provided your answer is high quality and makes some good points, it'll be okay. 4. Avoid the format Text A. Text B. Text C. End. This also applies to the World Lit essays: do not write everything about Love in Text A and then everything about Love in Text B. It is infinitely easier to make good points and score better if you follow the model: Point A about Love in Text A, Point A about Love in Text B. In other words, each paragraph(ish) should be a comparison of a specific point across the texts, and you should be constantly flitting between the two or more texts. This'll give you good structure and make your essay cohesive. It's similar to the line-of-argument thinking, really. Hopefully that makes sense. 5. Learn roughly 5 quotes per text (minimum) You don't have the texts with you in the exams (unless your school is being super lax with the IB rules), however it is always good to A) do some language analysis B) show your amazing knowledge of the texts Of course you can (and definitely should) show knowledge by explaining where your examples sit in context within the texts, how they're supported or repeated throughout the text and all that sort of thing which shows the examiner that you clearly know the text well, without quoting. However, quotes are important. I would recommend you learn 4-5 quotes per text. The reason for this number? Well it's random, however it should also be sufficient. Remember that YOU are in charge of putting them in, so for all the examiner knows, you might know every word of the whole book but have just chosen to put in 2 or 3 quotes -- you can show off what you know and totally skip on what you don't know by simply explaining it rather than quoting it. Consequently, you don't need to remember lots, and you can base some of your points around your quotes to make sure you nip them in. For this reason, your quotes need to be well-selected. I would recommend that you have quotes to convey the main themes, important things about the main characters, examples of the author's style if they have a distinctive style, and at least one quote which you can do a tiny bit of literary analysis on per text. You can find these by flicking through the books and just thinking of the most important things your teachers picked out in lessons, or you'll also find that sites like Sparknotes often contain 'key' quotes which you can use to inspire you. Picture them appearing in your essay and the points you'll make from them and it'll help you pick They don't have to be long... even just 3 words long if it makes your point! 6. Make sure the essay has a sound, planned structure In my experience, people rarely run out of time for this essay. There's no line-by-line version where you can ramble on to make your point, you'll have to structure it. Again you should practice how long this is going to take you, but you should do it a bit like Tip 1. Columns to compare points across as many texts as you're going to include. This shouldn't take you too long, but make sure you introduce with a mini line-of-argument, as in Paper 1 (it's a bit harder in Paper 2 so your introduction will probably just be some major generalising about the way in which the theme pops up in the texts) -- this'll also provide you with a way to conclude. Always think how to link the previous point to the next point so your essay flows well. 7. Remember what your texts are called and who wrote them... It does not in any way shape or form help impress the examiner if you cannot get these right!! You'd be amazed what sorts of things you assume you know but will blank on in the exam, and the names of texts and authors are right up there with major things people forget. Part of this is due to the fact you'll be giving them all slang names by the end of studying them (e.g. 'Handmaids' instead of 'The Handmaid's Tale', and suddenly you'll be in the exam wondering who on earth wrote it, how many Ts there are in "At(t?)wood" and whether it was 'a' Handmaid's Tale or 'the' Handmaid's Tale or whether there was ever an extra word there at all). Really stupid things but you'll get stuck! Make sure you're spelling all of the titles, character and author's names right (don't assume you've been calling them the right name for 2 years, for instance many people reading The Outsider are very freaked that 'Mersault' has secretly been called 'Meursault' the whole time). This is the thing you will absolutely kick yourself for not getting right. 8. Always refer back to context and give examples Show you know the texts! Without retelling the story, pop in a little bit of context with all your examples, and make sure you give an example (not necessarily quoted, remember, it can just be explained) for every point you make. Don't waste your time by going into insane detail, just make it subtly obvious you know the texts with context and examples. 9. How many paragraphs should my essay have?? Okay, lots of people ask this. The answer is AS MANY AS IT NEEDS. The reason for this is the intrinsic structure of your essay. You want each paragraph/section to be illustrating a new compare/contrast point. For instance, if the Question you're given is something like... "In the texts you have studied, what is the role of time?", you want to instantly come up with comparators/contrasts. E.g.... - in Long Day's Journey Into Night, the setting changes over time to show the passing of the day and the 'journey into night' - in Waiting for Godot, the setting never changes to reflect how despite changing time, nothing actually changes - in Long Day's Journey Into Night, the mother lives mentally in the past and regresses further and further as the play goes on - in Waiting for Godot the characters are confused about the time and how long they've been there (...and then obviously a lot more points!!) Having done this you want to look at the points of comparison and contrast you've created. I would say that the points are 1. the way that time affects setting 2. the character's view of the passage of time Et voila! 2 points and ~ 2 paragraphs. Hopefully this illustrates the idea of the structure: your paragraphs/sections should represent your points, and your point should compare/contrast across all the texts you're using. In this way you end up with a good, well-structured essay that very tightly and neatly answers the question. Your points and ideas are very clear! This is, essentially, PEE again. Got to love PEE Really though, there's no point in doing X number of paragraphs as some optimum number. You'll have no idea how many points you're going to have and how many paragraphs your writing will take up until you've written it. Otherwise it's like saying that you're going somewhere nobody's ever been before, but nevertheless want somebody to advise you on the exact walking time. Just plain old bizarre. Tips for Writing WL1 Essays 1. Get your question right! "Thesis statement" or question, whatever code name it goes under, it is absolutely absolutely essential it's right. You have several things to look at to get it 'right', and these are as follows A) You will be able to write 1,500 words in answer to your question. WL essays are short and if it's not 1,450-1,500 words minimum I would suggest you've not set yourself a very good question or have failed to answer it thoroughly enough. You should be editing out minor words like crazy trying to trim it down, and definitely not stopping short of the mark. B) You will be able to answer the question extremely thoroughly within 1,500 words. If you think "oh and I could've said that, too, but I ran out of space..." you didn't set yourself a very good question! Your question must be FULLY answered in the word count. C) It will be a question! I personally think the phrase "thesis statement" can be misleading in terms of including the word statement. There should be no stating, narrating or retelling (unless it's part of briefly establishing context). You're trying to prove something by answering a task you've set yourself. If you're having difficulty finding a question, I would suggest looking again at major themes and characters as you'll invariably find at least something to compare between those. 2. Thoroughly integrate the two texts As with Paper 2 (Tip 4) make sure you constantly put one text against the other and do your best to avoid half your essay being about Text A and then half your essay being about Text B. You can't really do an analytical comparison that way, you end up just listing facts about 1 and facts about 2 -- if you're good you might be able to link Text B back every single time you spot an overlap, but that makes for difficult and messy reading and is generally not what you want to be doing if your aim is to impress. 3. Keep quotes short, simple and sweet Definitely quote! Just remember that quotes take up your word count, so the more professional you are about integrating your quotes the better. Don't quote a whole sentence if the bit you want is only in part of it. If you can edit out/in words so it makes sense in the context of what you're writing, that not only shows that you are proficient at writing and will get you brownie points for that, but also saves your word count (yay). To show an example of quotes being integrated well and quotes being integrated less well, I shall give an example -- for instance, if the sentence in the book was "Fred's tortured past was long behind him now" A 'worse' version of this might be By saying 'Fred's tortured past was long behind him now', the author contrasts the fact that his past was bleak with the fact it happened a long time ago .... A better version: Here Fred's past is described as "tortured" but the author also contrasts it with the fact that it is "long behind him now" Not the best of examples but hopefully you can see that by chopping and changing, you can quote as part of your explanation rather than quoting something and then explaining it. In the long run it reads better, saves words and is generally more efficient. 4. SHOW your knowledge of the text The best way to do this is by putting all of your examples in context. It's very important to appear to have a good working knowledge of whatever it is you're writing about and you should note that the IB specifies an appreciation of culture as one of its little keywords in the WL1 blurb. Although you should put all of the examples into the context of the novel/play/whatever itself, it's possibly worth putting some points of the novel in a more global context -- for instance if you were to pick out an example from Animal Farm with one of the pigs talking, you could extremely briefly mention the propaganda of Orwell's time and the message which he intends to convey through the character of the pigs being very relevant to its original readers. With Antigone or one of the Ancient Greek plays, pointing out how useful the Chorus is as a narrative technique given the mechanics of Greek theatres. This kind of thing is good because it shows you appreciate the style of the piece and also its original cultural context. Whatever you do do NOT go on about this for any longer than absolutely necessary. It's a World Literature piece, so any reference to non-WL stuff should be the tiniest of comments, but it's a good idea to nip in this sort of thing somewhere as it shows the examiner you appreciate a very large context to your understanding of the literature. 5. Take advantage of presenting the characters (added by Tilia) Present the characters. Don't write "X eats a potato together with Y". Instead write "The 16-year-old protagonist X eats a potato together with his best friend and neighbour, the blonde Englishman Y". This is how you show knowledge of works, criterion B. (And handily use hardly any of your word count in the process! Good tip or what?) Literary features bucket list: a short list of essentials literary features you can add to... but it's definitely useful to know these ones! Hopefully those're all helpful hints. Please feel free to post some of your own and I'll edit them into this thread with some credit -- only if they're decent, of course, although I'm sure they will be (so no "bring a pen" comments!) xP Or if you have constructive comments to make on the tips already up there, those are also welcome.
  25. 1 point
    [quote name='Lil' post='27046' date='Oct 20 2008, 12:30 PM']So I would like to write about Freud and I am interested in the fields of histery or dream... Can you propose me some topics about it or just give me some idea about what I could talk about... It is urgent and I am the only one who writes IA in psychology...gaaah...Please please please HELP!!! Thanks [/quote] Hi you can go to John Crane's IB Psychology page and look up some suggested IA topics he has. I copied and pasted them here for you: Here is a list of sample IA topics. A. Memory Memory and acoustic learning: There is a theory that when we have to learn something like a telephone number that we store the number in the form of the mental sound that it makes i.e. acoustically. Participants have to learn lists of letters and then write them down after a delay. According to the acoustic coding theory participants will have more difficulty recalling letters which sound similarcompared to a list of words which sound quite different. Improving memory: Imagery vs rehearsal: participants recall more words from a (20) word list when they use an imagery method (forming a vivid mental image and linking each item to the last in a dynamic fashion) than if they use either rehearsal (repeat each item until you hear the next) or no particular method (no prior instruction). Bower (1967); Paivio (1971). The Role of Ambiguity: Give participants an ambiguous passage (which could mean anything) which they later have to recall. Some participants are given a title to the passage which makes it sensible while other participants are not. Those with the title should process the passage more meaningfully and therefore recall the passage more successfully. Memory and levels of processing: Craik and Lockhart hypothesise that the deeper and more meaningfully we process information the better subsequent recall will be. Participants are asked to process words either at a basic structural level like 'is the word in capitals?' or at a level requiring the comprehension of meaning e.g. 'is it something you can eat'? Participants would be expected to recall those words processed more deeply more successfully. Craik and Tulving (1975). Memory interference: This could be nicely applied to school revision. Participants have to learn for example a list of words and then recall them. Memory is interfered with by learning another list of words; some participants learn this interfering list before the main list and some learn it after the main list to see which has the greater effect. Eye-witness reports: Loftus and Palmer (1974); Loftus and Zanni (1975). Participants asked how fast cars were going when they ‘smashed’ into each other, after viewing a car accident, report greater speeds than do participants asked the speed when they ‘hit’ each other. The former group are more likely to report seeing broken glass (when none is there) a week later. Does background noise impair memory? This is good for those who argue that they can listen to their iPods and still study for their IB exams... B. Perception, Thinking and Performance Perceptual Sets: (a) This is based on the hypothesis that peoples' perception of colour depends on what they associate that colour with. For example, people associate tomatoes with being red so might perceive a stronger red colour than say a red hat which doesn't have the same associations. This practical involves showing participants pictures of fruit but with some of the colours mixed up. For example, participants are shown a picture of a red tomato and then a red banana and later have to judge the colours of each on a colour chart. b. Solving lists of anagrams is easier if all the words belong to a category (e.g. animals) than if they are random words. c. The participant is presented briefly with a list of words about a topic e.g. letter, post, stamp etc. which they have to write down - and then one of them is misspelled e.g. mael, and the hypothesis is that because a strong mental concept of the topic has been set up that they will write down the word as 'mail'. Stroop effect: Participants take a lot longer to name the colour of ink that words are written in when the words themselves are contradictory colour words e.g. ‘red’ written in yellow ink – Dyer (1973). Word and letter recognition: Visual search: Time taken to find X’s hidden in a four column list of similar shaped letters (Y, Z etc.) is longer than for lists with letters such as S, R, P etc. – Neisser’s (1964) feature analysis model of pattern recognition. Alternatively: Participants will take longer to find 0 among letters if it is called tzero’ than when it is called letter ‘oh’ and vice versa – Jonides & Gleitman (1972). Heuristics: Tversky and Kahneman’s (1973) ‘availability’ hypothesis. If people recall more items from one set than from another they assume (heuristically) that there actually were more in the former set. Demonstrate this by giving participants a set of names to remember containing 19 very famous males and 20 not so famous females. Since participants tend to recall more male names they tend to judge that more males were in the list. Anchoring Bias - Tversky and Kahneman. Someone's estimates of something will be greatly influenced by the way the question is structured. For example, people asked to estimate 1x2x3x4x5x6x7x8x9 give lower estimates than those estimating 9x8x7x6x5x4x3x2x1 because the earliest numbers affect perception of the answer. Similarly, if subjects are asked to guess the length of the river Vltava, their estimates will be influenced by a preceding question "is 2000 km (or 20,000km in the other condition) an over or underestimate of the length of the river Vltava". (Kahnemann and Tversky (1973) and Northcraft and Neale (1987) C. Social Psychology Person perception: Versions of Asch’s (1946) ‘warm’, ‘cold’ central traits paradigm can be implemented in many topical ways. Candidates give one description of a person to one group of participants and an identical version to another group varying only one characteristic, for instance ‘agrees with nuclear testing’ for one group and ‘disagrees....’ for the other. They then ask participants to assess the fictitious person on, say, liking or trustworthiness on a 10 point scale and look for differences between groups. Asch’s ‘primacy’ effect can also be tested using a list of descriptors – e.g. ‘orderly entertaining humble cool calculating moody’ in that order for one group and in the opposite order for another. Those hearing the positive traits first might rate the person more favourably on a ten point scale – Anderson and Barrios (1961). Luria and Rubin (1974) – participants given the same picture of a baby but one group told it is male the other female. Record differences in descriptions. It is best to give a checklist to participants containing ‘typical’ masculine and feminine traits – fine featured, strong, robust, sensitive, cute, and delicate. Social facilitation: The idea is that people tend to perform better when in groups than when on their own. Subjects can be given tasks (e.g. word searches) either in groups or on their own to test this theory. The halo effect: The effects of physical attractiveness: The halo effect states that attractive people are perceived as having more positive attributes. Social inference : Do people over-estimate the number of beads in a jar if they see a list of other peoples "over-estimates?" i.e. do they base their estimates on other peoples' views? Defensive attribution: The more serious an accident appears, the more people wish to assign responsibility to the driver. Incentives and performance: It would seem logical that incentives should improve our performance. This could be tested by asking subjects to perform simple tasks like anagrams and measuring their speed of performance under different conditions. e.g. with or without an incentive like a Mars bar or alternatively by creating a fear of failing - to see whether positive or negative incentives are the most effective (e.g. telling the subjects that the results will be put on display and that the average number of completed anagrams in 5 minutes by 8 year olds is 15!) This could be developed to find whether the fear of failure impedes performance most on more complex cognitive tasks like anagrams rather than simple memory recall type tasks. Alternatively you could test the hypothesis that a group of subjects will perform better on a task if they have previously (based on an earlier test) been told they have scored highly, than a group who have been told (falsely) they have performed badly. Hope it helps!

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