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  1. 2 points
    Hello! Technically, you can write your Extended Essay in a subject that you aren't taking, as IB doesn't have a rule against it. However, it might be heavily discouraged or not even allowed depending on your school. For example, at my school, EE subjects were only limited to whichever courses a student was taking since the coordinator was worried that we wouldn't have sufficient knowledge of the subject in terms of what IB is looking for. Getting an 'A' on the EE is already a feat in and of itself, and even more so if it's not done in an exam subject. In my opinion, it would be easier to obtain a better score by writing your EE in a subject that you're both interested in and actually taking. To my knowledge, EE's shouldn't be interdisciplinary and should only focus on one subject, so combining ITGS with a different subject wouldn't be advised. Contrary to what MoeU stated above, I don't think that languages or history are necessarily "easy" EE subjects, as level of difficulty is subjective. The most suitable subjects are what you'll be most intrigued and motivated by. Out of ITGs and economics, I'd choose economics if I were in your shoes solely because it's a course you're enrolled in, but take this advice with a grain of salt. Maybe you can consult your teacher(s) if you haven't already, they might have some good advice for you too. Good luck!
  2. 1 point
    The textbooks will be provided. You use the same textbooks as the academic classes (pre IB is no different from academic science wise). Also depending on your teacher, they may also provide you coursepacks.
  3. 1 point
    Is there a need for you to take ESS? If I were you, I'd replace it with Physics SL at the very least, but from what I have seen most universities in Canada require Maths, Chemistry and Physics HL for their engineering courses. Even if you choose not to go to university in Canada, Physics at SL or HL would complement your other subjects better if you choose to study engineering.
  4. 1 point
    Hello! I don't think I can definitively give you an answer specific to CS as I don't personally take the course, but generally your final grade should be based on the May exams as well as the IA. Your predicted mark might influence university applications if you're applying, though. IB will moderate a sample of the highest scoring, middle scoring, and lowest scoring IAs, but I don't know the exact number off the top of my head for a class of 7. So, your mark may rise, stay the same, or drop if yours is sent off to IB (well, I suppose it can't go down if your teacher really does give you a 1, but that sounds strange to me especially if you did the IA and fulfilled the requirements?) -- and the entire class may have their marks moderated up or down based on the ones that get sent off to IB as well. I hope everything works out for you!
  5. 1 point
    In extension to dw0573, note that the CAS project does have to span at least 1 month. This is the only CAS activity which has to be 'lengthy'
  6. 1 point
    Hello, here are some ideas of chemistry IA experiments : https://owltutors.co.uk/chemistry-ib-ia-ideas-2017-2018/ You choose the topic which interests you the most, and you create a research question in the form : How is x dependent on y? Then, you try to decide which variable you should vary, controlled variables and dependent variables. And don't forget to search for what others have done for their experiments in IB chemistry to have an idea of the experiment. Yours sincerely.
  7. 1 point
    IB is a joke. It isn't the refreshing diploma you'd want to take; it is just hard just to be hard. It doesn't really teach you what they claim to, it is just annoying hard and stupid work. It doesn't give you time for anything else than IB itself. Why don't they let you start a project in which you could continue on once you graduate? No. Because that you would mean it will be enjoyable for you. I have currently 4 projects in which I'm making money from (around 25k usd a month) and enjoying them but I have to spare time for the stupid IB program that doesn't teach you ANYTHING. Only classes that I like are mathematics HL and physics HL, all the others (TOK, CAS, French SL, English SL, Economics SL, ITGS HL) are complete time wasters. And they consume your life. Like what the actual **** does ITGS teach you; NOTHING. Only thing you have to do is read a **** ton of words and memorize their ****ing stupid definition. I'm a computer geek but this crap is unbearable. I wish I never started the IB. My 2 cents if you're not in the IB yet and you do not like memorization and you are actually intelligent (however I'd support literary people to take it) ; Don't take it. And if you just started you should quit. But of course you'd be 1-2 thousands dollar short since IB is kinda a scam =P.
  8. 1 point
    Hey! I am currently in IB Year 1 and I'm also planning on studying medicine. I have HL Biology, Chemistry and English B and SL Maths AA, Polish A and Geography. The crucial ones are Biology and Chemistry. I don't really know about the requirements in any countries other than the UK and Poland. The UK (almost) always requires Chemistry HL and Physics/Biology/Maths HL (and Biology SL if not taken at HL), however, I would highly recommend taking Biology HL. It's mainly because its content is the most useful at medicine later at university (it's way more useful than the knowledg from Maths or Physics). Well, I'm also taking Maths AA SL, but there are many people in my class who are planning on studying medicine who are taking Maths AI SL. Well, you can have Maths AA if you feel comfortable about Maths to be more competitive while applying, but it's not usually required (apart from Scotland, e.g. Edinburgh and some other actually require at least Math SL AA, so you can't have Maths AI SL). Apart from that, I think that Maths HL is definitely not required and it is a very difficult subject. So to sum up, I would advise you to take Biology and Chemistry HL and Maths AA SL (if you're actually good at Maths and don't have problems with it). The other subjects are completely up to you and what you're more interested in/good at, I believe.
  9. 1 point
    Hello, I am in 12 grade at an international school. I am a diploma student but am extremely worried about passing the diploma. The school I go to is located on a small island and only offers the IB program. It's very weird because the school offered one AP course in 10th grade (Spanish). My school is an American school and we have been taught the American system. In 11th grade, we suddenly changed to the IB curriculum and it was a big jump because we were never prepared for it. It was a big change and we couldn't catch up with classes such as math, chem, and physics (mainly because we had teachers that didn't prepare us well and we never did precalculus and jumped to calculus directly from algebra II). I take HL math, psychology online, and history and SL spanish B, English Lit, and chemistry. I deeply regret taking HL math because it's hard and the highest grade that someone has ever gotten at our school is a level 4 HL math. I'm also kinda worried about psychology because online is hard.... But I have gotten an acceptance from Trent University and University of Windsor. Windsor requires me to have my diploma and Trent requires an 80% average in my final transcript. I am extremely scared of not passing my diploma. Do Canadian Universities accept IB certificate? Someone please help? The other situation is similar to mine. My friend is doing the diploma, but she is scared of not passing HL physics (the 3 HL kids got no higher than a level 3 for their midterm which was an IB paper 1 and 2). She has applied for Waterloo, Victoria, Ottawa, and Trent. Do any of these schools accept the IB certificate?
  10. 1 point
    Hello everyone, I have found a website that offers help to both HL and SL physics students. It includes videos explaining past paper questions by topic and by year from May 2016 to May 2019. The videos are very analytical as they show the question and go through a detailed solution that would get full marks. It also has a question bank and practice papers. I did my exams in May19 and I wish I had known about this website as it offers the ideal help that physics students need. It doesn't require payment for the majority of the videos meaning that you have access to them with no need to sign in. I would suggest though to buy the membership for the full package as it is only 39 euros comparing to other websites where you need to pay more than 100 euros and they don't have video explanations. This website can help you achieve a solid 6 or 7 in physics as going through paper 1 and paper 2 analytically is the best practice for your IB exam. https://paperplainz.com
  11. 1 point
    For English: StoryCorps and Wait Wait... Don't Tell Me For economics, I've never listened to it but I assume it's good: Planet Money
  12. 1 point
    Good news: There is If you click the "Add CAS Experience" button on the right side of the screen, the CAS worksheet will pop up. On the worksheet, you can click the tags to add them to that activity. One of the tags is "Ongoing." Additionally, you can specify the range of time you do that particular activity, right below the tagging area. Here's a screenie of one of my ongoing activities:
  13. 1 point

    Version 1.0.0


    Written task type 1 about Chronik eines angekündigten Todes by Gabriel Garcia Marquez
  14. 1 point

    Version 1.0.0


    This is a business internal assesment sample. Grade 6
  15. 1 point
    Hello all, Long story short I dropped the full IB diploma a few days ago and I am now currently doing the IB certificate. I am doing 6 subjects, 4 SL's and 2 Hl's. I dropped Biology HL to SL, it was just too much content for me to handle. Anyways, my question is will I be able to get admitted into a good school? I'm focusing more on Canada than America in terms of schools. I am in my second year of IB and my current score is 26 but I'm trying to push it up. My counselor and I emailed most of my American schools and they mostly said they don't care about whether it's the full diploma or certificate but 1. I don't have very high grades and 2. My SAT score is not that competitive. Right now I seriously feel like I'm not going to get accepted anywhere and my parents will kill me. I'm so disappointed in myself but I'm trying to push through. Please tell me if you think I'll have a shot at getting accepted. Also please feel free to add any schools you would think I have a shot at. For Canada I'm looking at University of Calgary, UBC, Queens, Thompson Rivers, Western University , Brock, York and University of Ottawa. I was also thinking of University of Sydney in Australia but I'm not sure...
  16. 1 point
    The best person to ask regarding whether something counts is your CAS Supervisor. Send the email and hopefully they'll reply soon. It's probably best to ask them who's email you should use, but perhaps the individual who in charge of the orphanage would be a good idea? Or someone who will actually be around whilst you're working with the kids - presuming that an adult will be around?
  17. 1 point
    Now that I'm done with my History finals (which I've been panicking so much about for the last few months) I'm going to procrastinate by writing some tips on how to do well in IB History while trying not to repeat things that have been said in previous posts on the forum too much. The historical investigation I wrote my historical investigation on Ancient Rome and regret it somewhat, although I did find it interesting. Unless you are very much into history as a subject (and even then), doing your HI on a topic that somewhat interests you and is likely to be of some use in your exams is, I think, the best option. This is simply because having spent so much time on your HI, you can probably spend a lot less time in general on revision of that topic, cutting your study time by a lot during what will probably be the busiest time in your IB years, the month or two leading up to the final exams. Don't spend too much time on the HI and also don't get stuck in refining small details - same advice goes for all IB assignments. Don't underestimate its importance, either - it is worth 20% (or 25%) and could potentially save your grade in case the finals do not go according to plan. Make use of the resources in this forum, including examples. Also, keep a very close eye on the marking criteria when finishing work; you should aim to achieve the highest one in every aspect. The same advice goes for your EE if you choose to write it in History; although in this case, choosing something you're passionate about and actually want to research is much more important than for the IA which is comparatively simpler and shorter. The essays There's a number of important points concerning essays. There's plenty of good resources for actual essay writing both online and in here, so I won't go into that. Some history specific tips follow... The subject reports for history seem to indicate that a thematic approach is preferable to a chronological one. This means that, for example, if you're writing an essay on Hitler's successes and failures, you could have body paragraphs for political, social, cultural, economic, and foreign policy, rather than going through everything he did from 1933 to 1945. Be as analytic as you can make doing so very explicit in your essays for the benefit of the examiner. Some ideas to show analytical skills: Refer back to the question at the end of every paragraph you write. The last few sentences should sum up why, how, and to what extent the things you introduced are significant to the question. Use connectors of addition and contrast such as "however", "on the other hand", "in addition" to make it very clear that you're analysing. Examine causes and effects for different groups of people. For example, in a Hitler's successes essay, you could discuss the point of view of supporters of liberal democracy, the population, the state, and Hitler himself, and make it clear that this wasn't necessarily the same thing. Define the terms used in the question in your introduction (eg ideology) as well as the scope if you're responding to a more open-ended question. Challenge the assumptions in the question if there are any. For example, if you need to discuss the conditions in the rise to power of two leaders, you can briefly say that the methods were perhaps even more important in their rise to power. This should not, however, be a major point in your essay! If you can use actual figures or specific primary sources in your essay, that's great. Memorising them in large quantities and for everything, however, is probably not worth the time. Dates are not very important; it is important to know the broad chronology of events, but not the exact dates! So you should learn years for most things, and months for some more short-term issues (eg. collapse of the Provisional Government in 1917 or the 1945 Cold War conferences). You can place events in context by, for example, discussing the events in the long-term (for example, when discussing the Russian revolution, you can say that WWI was particularly problematic for tsarism since the Romanov dynasty had linked itself greatly to military success) or discussing events in other places at the same time (once again, when discussing the Russian revolution you can say that it may not be surprising that the tsar was overthrown as WWI tended to illegitimise rulers all over Europe and even regimes where the social situation was much more stable pre-1914 collapsed as a result of the war). Also see the section below for historiography! Effectively using historiography When making notes, include a couple of historians for every subtopic, especially those which are more likely to come up in exams (for example, for the Russian option, Alexander II and the revolutions). Make little lists such as: It's pretty easy to find summaries of historians' views on the internet or on this forum, so use them to your advantage. Saying that, there's no substitute for actually reading proper history books at least for the topics you are focusing on. It helps you gain an understanding of the nuances of the events in question and also a deeper grasp of historiography which should show in your essays. This is especially true if you're aiming for the higher mark bands (although it is perfectly possible to get a 7 without wider reading). Shorter works eg. Pipes' Three Whys of the Russian Revolution give you a lot of benefit for a small investment in time. This also helps you see the kind of style you should aim for in essays. Although style isn't something you should be particularly concerned about, assessment in history will always be in some ways subjective; it might help you score a few extra points! Integrate the historians well in your essays and critically examine their views. Try to refute them if you can using facts. For example, for the above Soviet view, you could refer to the results of the Constituent Assembly elections following their coup, where the Social Revolutionary party won twice as many seats. Historiography should complement your facts, but it's in no way a replacement for them. In any given paragraph, roughly 50% should be facts, 30% your own analysis, and less than 20% should be historiography. Also show an awareness of the factors that affect history writing. So for example when discussing a Soviet view you could refer to state pressure and political ideology; when discussing the view that Hitler was the "Master of the Third Reich" (Bullock) you could refer to the experiences of the victims of the Third Reich and perhaps the fact that emotional and historical distance hadn't had the time to develop. Revising for the final exam and the exam itself HL History is probably one of the most time-consuming subjects to revise for since you need to have a good grasp of a large quantity of events and also a fairly good depth of information. You should not study everything you've gone through in class. The smart thing to do is to use a combination of past papers and the syllabus to determine what you should study. If your teacher has planned the course well (and even if he/she hasn't), there should be a considerable amount of overlap; for example, the paper 1 topic Peacemaking, Peacekeeping, overlaps to some extent with the Causes, practices, and effects of war in paper 2, and the interwar years topic in paper 3. Naturally, you should choose the topics with the most overlap to minimise work and maximise grades. Focus on the questions that come up a lot (such as Alexander II, origins of WWI and Cold War, and the Russian revolutions), but also ensure that whatever the combination of questions, you can answer at least the minimum required amount – you might get very unlucky. When considering what you should revise, it might be helpful to keep your own interests and strengths in mind. I am, for example, terrible at memorising practices of war since I have no interest whatsoever in military strategy or weapons... So I decided to skip that entirely for my final exams. I've mentioned notes (see this topic by Julie especially!) a couple of times above. You should have your class notes, but actually rewriting (and expanding) them while keeping the points above in mind is a good way to revise. Markschemes for past papers show the kind of things you should have knowledge on for every topic. As for all subjects, make yourself a schedule to make it easier to keep up with revision. At the point where you have a good grasp of the facts – which should ideally be no less than a week before your history exams start – the thing to do is to start going through past papers and writing as many essays and essay outlines as you can. This should be done using the actual timing, so about 45 minutes per essay. Aim to do at least one essay on every topic that is likely to come up. If your teacher is nice, he/she’ll give you comments on essays even during the study break. During the exam… Try to relax and breathe. Have a sip of water Use the reading time to your advantage. Read through all questions (and the sources in paper 1). Decide which ones you’ll write essays on. Start mentally planning the first one if you have any time left over. Writing essays against the time limit while revising also lets you know the way you work the best. If you need to plan, do so, as it is 5 minutes well spent. Keep up with the time limit and keep an eye on the time. Having three essays worth 15 points is better than having two essays worth 20 points and one introduction. If you get lucky and get a question that you find easy, I’d say it’s better to leave it last. This is for two reasons: first, you’ll be tired at that point, and writing on an easy topic will be easier for you; second, if you find that you have more time left than the 45 minutes you’ve planned for, you can use it to your advantage more efficiently by using more of your knowledge (rather than starting with that and finding yourself in the scenario above)
  18. 1 point
    no they arent, how is that sexism? i find it funny how you were able to relate those two things do you even know how high 10 cm above the knee is? who would want a bunch of half naked girls walking around school as for the boys if shorts go 10 cm above the knee, they shouldnt be called shorts; more like boxers or underwear and pretty sure none of the men wear only underwear to school maybe a cultural thing in japan...
  19. 1 point


    this is overall info of the book Antigone
  20. 1 point


    This is my notes for the Cold War taken during my IB years. Hope it is useful for people who take history!
  21. 1 point
    You can submit either ACT or SAT - most universities should accept either. My advice is to choose the test you find easiest to do. It depends on your learning style, and each person learns slightly different. I personally found that ACT was easier than SAT; SAT was learning lots of vocabulary, which for me had no practical use, and avoiding tricky questions, whereas ACT was more analytical and more similar to how I learnt in my school previously. I suggest you take a diagnostic test for both, to see which one you found easiest stylistically. Ignore the score conversion - if you found one easier despite having a lower diagnostic score, you are more likely to improve on that in my opinion. This is from my experience of prepping for both tests. Key observations between ACT and SAT: The grammar in the SAT and ACT is essentially the same SAT requires more vocabulary learning than ACT in order to score well Universities definitely superscore SAT scores - this means that out of all the SAT scores you sent them, they will pick the best of each section to make the best overall score and use only that score for admission purposes. (E.g. January 2012 Critical Reading:560 Maths:590 Writing:800, May 2012 CR:790 M:540 W:700, June 2012 CR:300 M:600 W:450 --> superscore CR:790 M:600 W:800). Universities should be picking up the superscore system for ACT, but it's relatively new and the ACT system works by averaging out the section score out of 36. ACT mathematics is more difficult than SAT - ACT requires more complex maths and doesn't have a formula booklet, but offers all multiple choice questions; SAT provides some formulas and easier concepts, but the latter questions aren't multiple choice. By doing the SAT I (which is the SAT I have been discussing during this article), more competitive universities require approximately 2 SAT II subject tests as well. The SAT II subject tests are more like your academic subject tests, however if you do subject tests like Chemistry it requires you to have finished the whole IB Chemistry HL syllabus. You will have to do lots of self-studying. There are two types of ACT: ACT, and ACT with Writing. The Writing portion an extra 30 mins to the ACT test where you write an essay (similar to the SAT essay), and if you submit the ACT + Writing you DO NOT need to submit any SAT II subject tests. (Most universities say this.) If you just take the ACT, the subject tests are still required for competitive universities. Score choice for SAT is to choose which scores you send to universities. (For example, I took testing dates May 2012 and June 2012, and I have the option to only send May 2012 if the university doesn't require to see all my testing scores. Do check each university's testing requirements.) You can sort of do this with ACT in that you choose which specific testing date (e.g. August 2012), but you cannot pick which section of the ACT you send off (e.g. you can't just send the Science portion of your Oct 2012 ACT test). ACT Pointers (since I took the ACT test): The sciences require minimal scientific content; it is more based on analysis and interpretation of results and graphs. If you have a GDC (and you should!), USE IT. While it is good practice to complete the multiple choice questions without looking at the MC answers, use the answers to 'work backwards' and see if it is the correct one. (Particularly for maths.) You don't have much time! Essay: write both for and against, and provide different points of view in your argument, for example the POVs of parents, teachers, high school faculty, high school students. English: You do not need to have read the texts mentioned in order to score well. (I quite honestly read none of them, and I did well.) Let me know if you have anymore questions! EDIT: Do not spend your IB life preparing for these tests! Because you want to apply to the US (I assume), American universities look at you as the student holistically. (All of the American universities I visited said this.) This means it isn't just your grades that matter (but they do have a LARGE chunk in whether you're admitted or not), but your outside activities and interests. As my SAT prep teacher said: "Get a life." Or at least try to.
  22. 1 point
    You don't actually need Maths SL to get into most unis in the UK. I think if you're really not that good at Maths then take it at studies level. That would be easier for you and its more likely to give you a higher point score, something which will really help you stand out at the competitive universities.
  23. 1 point

    Version PDF


    My tutor gave this 22/22, so hopefully someone will find it useful
  24. 1 point
    How to pick your TOK presentation title RIGHT this post is being made because there's an almost endless supply of people who pick very bad TOK presentation titles and it's always for the same reason: they don't really understand what the TOK presentation is about! SO listen up everybody and pay close attention to my attempts to dispel the TOK myths and stop people putting loads of effort into a presentation which is doomed from the start! 1. What do they mean when they say to pick a Knowledge Issue? The answer is frankly that the phrase 'knowledge issue' is very misleading, in my opinion. I certainly didn't have any idea what one was for most of the time I did TOK. Just think of 'knowledge issue' as a complicated way of saying 'a topic which can be analysed using the TOK pentagram thingy'. What is the TOK pentagram thingy? Well by that I mean the Ways of Knowing (emotion/reason/sense-perception/language) which in the IB diagram is surrounded by the Areas of Knowledge (Humanities, Human Sciences etc). If you've never been forced to draw the TOK pentagram in a lesson, you can view it in all its rubbish glory by clicking here. So a 'knowledge issue' is any topic which can be discussed or analysed in the context of the Ways of Knowing (and the Areas of Knowledge). Confused? You may well be. Keep reading! Or just skip the next heading and go to no. 3. 2. Do they mean to pick an ethical dilemma? No, no and NO. Thousands of IB students misunderstanding TOK up and down the land seem to have a thought process which (understandably but also wrongly) goes along the lines of: TOK = Philosophy = ...ethics = are things right or wrong?? This is not good. TOK is supposedly a branch of Philosophy but that's as far as it goes. A knowledge issue is not "is _____* right or wrong?" * = abortion, nuclear war, creationism... and so on. Don't write about ethics, don't touch ethics, don't go near ethics. Ethics and TOK are like oil and water. They do not mix. An area of knowledge may well be ethics but I guarantee you that almost anybody trying to put ethics into their TOK presentation will fail to write about the TOK aspects and just start writing about ethics. So take Kant, Utilitarianism, Relativism and anything else you may have proudly learnt the rudiments of, and stuff them in a bag for later. Or if you take IB Philosophy, they'll go down well there 3. Okay so what DO they want from me?? This is the best question because it's not about what they MEAN by knowledge issue etc. that is going to help you do well, but rather what they want from you which is the key to success and being able to pick a good TOK presentation title. Always think of it in these terms and you'll be able to tell whether you're on the right lines or drifting dangerously off course. Effectively they want you to answer the following question: How do we know what we know? specifically using their method of the Ways of Knowing/Areas of Knowledge in your explanation. 4. So... what do they mean by how do we know what we know? How do we know what we know about X? = using the 4 ways of knowing (reason, sense-perception, emotion, language), how do these 4 things interact and come together to form the knowledge that we have about subject X. For instance, how do we know that this pen is yellow? This isn't an endlessly deep philosophical question (in this instance) because this is a TOK lesson so they want you to copy/paste from the TOK pentagram. So think to yourself: what are the 4 ways of knowing and how do we use those to know the pen is yellow? Well, maybe somebody told you it was yellow (language), maybe you were told that it was the third colour of the rainbow (reason), maybe you were just shown it (sense-perception). I'm not sure how you'd emotionally find out it was yellow, but you get my gist - basically you are applying the 4 ways of knowing to something and then claiming that those ways of knowing form the "How" of the question "How do we know what we know?". 5. I get it now, but how is "this pen is yellow" a knowledge issue? Yeah, it's not a knowledge issue. Or rather, technically it is, but it's such a simple one that you couldn't do a presentation on it. Now that you've got the hang of the fact we're looking for SOMETHING to which to apply the 4 ways of knowing, we can look for a proper issue to get your teeth into. My advice is to think of something which is either an assumption or a decision that we make relatively unthinkingly. For instance, "How do we know which charity to donate to?" or "How do we know whether literature is 'good'?". THEN think your way through the 4 ways of knowing to see whether you can apply them (in which case, congratulations, you're going down the right lines!). Can you think of a way in which we use that way of knowing to come to a conclusion about your new 'knowledge issue'? 6. How does it become an 'issue' exactly? I seem to just be narrating things... In many ways this is the crux of the presentation and the whole point of TOK (to get you to consider this). This is the point at which you say "Well, I know about whether literature is good or not via reason because I assume that anything which has sold 10,000 copies MUST be good..." and then go "actually wait, reason requires things to follow logically - but actually, does this logically follow?". Well that's what you have to discuss! Your argument as it stands is: 1. People only buy books if they're good 2. 10,000 people have bought this book 3. Therefore the book is good. ...but does number 1 really make sense? What about advertising? 10,000 people might buy a really bad book if they see loads of adverts for it. Was the book a set text for the national curriculum? Plenty of people would have to buy it then And so on. Basically it's looking at the knowledge we have and checking it for mistakes and THAT is why it's an 'issue' and why TOK is meant to be helpful. If you're the kind of person who never questions why they think things, or thinks "hang on a sec, maybe I'm just assuming something which might not be true..." then TOK may be a revelation to you. This is where you go crazy with stuff like appeals to emotion, bias, censorship etc etc. and start looking into how the way in which we have come about the knowledge might fail to give us a complete picture of the 'truthful' version of that knowledge. Reason, emotion, sense/perception and language have a lot of issues in terms of ways in which they can help and hinder you, and it is now your job to suss these out and make them into a presentation! Essentially: How do they help you/let you down in terms of finding the 'truth' for the knowledge you've chosen as knowledge issue? BUT make sure you talk about the 4 ways of knowing (or however many apply, you might not need/be able to use all 4) and not just about bias/censorship/any key words other than the ways of knowing if you want to get your marks! 7. So do all TOK titles have to be in the format "How do we know what we know about X?" Nope, have free rein and go wild. Just make sure you can apply the 4 ways of knowing and that you're examining HOW we come to know about the issue. 8. Link it to a real-life scenario/example wherever possible. Okay, this isn't a suggestion, this is a command. Find an example, invent an imaginary example, whatever. You get bonus points for this, so do it 'cause it's easy. For the "How do we know what literature is good?" scenario, I might look at the real-life scenario of literature picked to be taught in schools or literature put in the 'Classics' section of a bookshop, or perhaps literary prizes. All scenarios where we have to ask about good literature, and all real-life examples which you can theme your presentation around. The TOK examiners get very sad when they realise that TOK is essentially just another random overlay of bull**** onto real life, so they are made VERY happy indeed by seeing you give a real-life example to prove that TOK is indeed relevant to reality. Even if it isn't. If you fail to link the TOK pentagram to a real-life issue, you can wave goodbye to a hefty chunk of marks. Bonus points if it's a personal example of an issue or uses personal experiences (even if you make them up) because if there's anything the examiners love more than pretending TOK is relevant to real life, it's pretending that TOK is relevant to YOUR life in particular. You definitely need to do this in the essay - for the presentation, you don't have to use a personal example necessarily, but every little helps. 9. Did I mention... DON'T TOUCH ETHICS!!!! Because honestly this is the hardest one for people to accept. TOK teachers might ask you ethical questions in lessons because they're trying to engage you and make you interested (and let's face it, once you stop pretending it's relevant to ethical dilemmas it becomes about 110% less interesting...), but they WILL NOT AWARD YOU MARKS for talking about ethics rather than TOK - no matter how insightful and interesting your presentation on ethics may or may not be. In Short... In summary, the answer to the question "Is this a good TOK presentation title?" can be solved via a simple litmus test. - Can you attach it to a real-life example? - Can you discuss it in the context of the 4 Ways of Knowing? (Or if not all 4, in the context of a few of them). If yes: Excellent work! If no: Think again, find a new topic. Go to jail, do not pass GO, do not collect £200 etc. and give up on this idea with immediate effect. MOST IMPORTANTLY: Do not select an ethical dilemma! ...or if you do, can't say I didn't warn you and work your little socks off to make sure you definitely talk about TOK and not ethics. Hopefully this helps. TOK is quite a big and ill-defined subject so if anybody has any other ideas or techniques to get good TOK presentations, please do contribute them and I'll add it in. This is just my version. I apologise that the format of this is perhaps not so useful, but if you DO read all the way through it in order, then it does make sense. I promise. Oh and remember ALWAYS READ THE MARKING CRITERIA! Now please kindly read this thread which has loads of helpful tips for getting on with your TOK Presentation after you've come up with a title! - TOK PRESENTATION GUIDE http://www.ibsurviva...entation-guide/ Oh and one final thing - if you send me a PM asking me how you'd approach this great TOK title you came up with "How do we know whether literature is 'good'?" or for any other examples you've nicked off this thread, you should expect in advance to receive no reply. For obvious reasons! Do a bit of your own work, chum, or at least don't insult me by asking for my feedback on my own ideas. This has happened - I am not amused.
  25. 1 point


    This is the best Internal assessment you will ever see about enthalpy of combustions of alcohols... Its a complete IA with everything and in detail and if you read it then I am sure it will be a very good guide in writing yours
  26. 1 point
    Skip to... Paper 1 Paper 2 WL1 Literary features Useful Links (cribbed off sweetnsimple786, thanks!) World Literature 1 Marking Criteria World Literature 2 Marking Criteria Other Links (posted by Julie) Literary Analysis and Writing Technical Points Tips for Writing A1 Unseen Commentaries (Paper 1) 1. Learn how YOU work best Unless you've sussed it out for yourself already, your aim throughout the two years of IB should be to establish how you best approach this sort of essay. Everybody prefers to deal with it differently and has their own style -- the ultimate aim for anybody is to produce an essay with a cohesive, well-supported argument, a sound structure, doesn't skip any major points and can be completed within the allotted time. Simple, right? There are two major areas in which people differ. The first is planning. How much time do you personally need to plan? Some people like to invest a massive amount of their time into it (e.g. for a 2 hour paper at HL they might spend half an hour or more planning it) and some people much less time, for instance 5 or 10 minutes. Obviously some has to take place as you have to read the poem and formulate an argument; whether you then choose to go straight ahead and start writing (usually to maximise the amount you can write down and give yourself leeway to change things) or whether you like to plan out exactly what you're going to say when (to make sure you have a good structure and are focussed), it's not a big deal. You have to work out for yourself what the optimum sort of time is going to be. The second area is the style in which you deal with the text. This can either be done by theme (and incidentally tends to pair well with somebody who plans a lot) in which major points of discussion are stuck into dedicated paragraphs, or line-by-line which is literally dealing with the text in a linear fashion and therefore tends to require a lot less forethought. Each of these has its weaknesses -- for the former you can easily find yourself spotting something you should've discussed earlier but will then need to break your structure in order to include. You're less likely to come across things as you're writing, can write comparatively 'shallow' essays (i.e. less deep analysis) and of course you do need to plan things like crazy. An acronym often related to this is SCASI (Setting/Character/Action/Style/Ideas), where you do roughly a section of your essay on each of those. Weaknesses related to the line-by-line are largely time management (you end up writing a lot more) and making sure you pick up on overarching themes as well as structuring it in a cohesive manner. Use any practice commentaries you do to test these out! Which do you prefer? More importantly, with which of these methods/time distributions do you get the best results grades-wise? You might be at an extreme or somewhere in the middle, but you're going to have a style which suits you and it's extremely important you're secure and confident in your personal approach before you enter the exam. On a final note, a lot of teachers will tell you that there's only one way to write a commentary. This is wrong. I've seen 7s with good employment of both these styles and the examiners will reward essays which fulfil the marking criteria, not your teacher's favourite way of doing it. 2. Don't pick between poetry/prose in advance This might seem reasonably obvious, but there is a considerable chance that the poem/prose which comes up will not be to your liking. With the poetry you might not understand it... and with the prose you might not really see what there is to write. There are exceptions to this rule, some people know what they're doing and can go for their favourite every time, but as a general rule if you don't know 100% that you are an exception (and you'll know, trust me!) my advice is to practice both. Don't pick prose or poetry prior to seeing what they are like, that's a pretty crazy tactic because you're taking away your own options! 3. Have a line of argument This gives your essay purpose, direction and is something for you to constantly refer back to. It's easier to do an analysis if you treat the whole essay as building up the case for WHY your analysis is correct. Imagine that you've announced "this poem is about X and now I'm going to show you why". This way you'll analyse, you'll give examples and you'll have cohesion because your essay will keep returning to the same central points. At no point in the exam should you be sitting scratching your head wondering where on earth to go next. You have an introduction (your declaration and brief overview of why you believe X to be the case) and a conclusion (briefly how you believe you've proved it to be so). Excellent stuff, having a line of argument. 4. Make sure your argument makes sense If I am correct, in the USA and some other places, they call an argument a thesis statement. Whatever. Call it what you like, it is extremely important that you project your own 'vision' or interpretation of the poetry/prose. What this does NOT under any circumstances mean is that you see one bit of a line, think "ooo I like that idea!" and start inventing things or deciding that the word 'interpretation' is some kind of arty excuse for making mystical-sounding comments. World Literature is an analytical subject at heart, and whilst there's no technical right and wrong in that several versions of something can be correct, there's definitely a wrong and the word for that is misinterpretation. You do not want to misinterpret the whole thing. Some people are lucky and will never misinterpret because it comes naturally to them; for other people, no worries, there is a litmus test. Decide what you think the main theme of the poem/prose is and then with your decision in mind, and prior to writing anything, go through the whole text and think at every point "does my interpretation DEFINITELY make sense in light of this section?". Sometimes you might find something contradictory -- for instance a note of joy in a poem which is otherwise quite depressing. In that case, your argument can no longer be that the whole poem is centred around bitterness (or whatever, I'm making this up) but rather you'll have to alter your argument to the poem being about the randomness of fate (because on reflection it turns out that the contrast between the depression and the joy makes this the message you receive). Clearly this is an invented example, but the point I'm trying to get at is that the former interpretation wouldn't fit the whole text. The second interpretation DOES fit the whole text. Always make sure that your main line of argument fits everything, or your entire essay will be out. 5. Use language you understand Okay I'm not going to lie, some people say some really stupid things. If you don't know what a word means, don't know how a phrase is used (and this happens to some native speakers as well as non-native speakers) for the love of whatever higher being may or may not be out there… don't do it! Please. If you've been exposed to a lot of phrases around you in everyday life, and read a lot of books, you'll probably find this kind of thing like second nature to you, and you're very lucky. If not, please don't try and impress anybody. It's better to use straight forward sentences and make sure you're definitely getting your point across. You will not be rewarded for speaking with the kind of Elizabethan flourish which would've made Shakespeare proud of his handiwork. They're going to be more impressed by the whole thing making sense than by you using verbs in conjunction with the wrong prepositions etc. 6. PEE! Also go to the toilet before the exam. I always assume everybody has heard of this; if you haven't, listen up! PEE is the best way to approach anything. Point, Example, Explanation! Live by the code of PEE and you should never make a crappy point (because if it's crappy hopefully you'll realise your explanation sucks and therefore not write it) and never make a point without explaining it (without that extra E, PEE just wouldn't be the amusing urination-based acronym we all know and love, would it?). To break it down with a (flippant) example: Point --> Seamus Heaney (a poet) uses potato-based puns to enforce his love of potatoes Example --> He says: "Without potatoes/I would not be rooted in this life" (yes this is made up) Explanation --> The word "rooted" refers back both to the author's roots and also to the nature of potatoes themselves which are root vegetables. He also uses a very effective sentence structure to emphasise the significance of potatoes by making them the start of the phrase, the verb in the middle and then with "life" as the last word in the phrase, the stresses fall in such a way that the two seem linked…. etc etc etc. It's amazing what you can bull**** really 7. Manage your time wisely Okay I mentioned this with planning earlier. Know when you're going to have done stuff by and keep an eye on the clock. An essay is not an essay without a conclusion and all of its contents, and these things cannot be put into place if you run out of time! When I used to do my A1 essays I went line-by-line and said more or less to leave 5 mins at the end to conclude have 5 mins at the start to plan and intend to be halfway through the poem by the time I got halfway through my time. Never failed to finish an essay with this (very non-technical but useful) tactic. Don't be caught out. 8. Make points, don't score points! (aka don't drop in literary features if you don't know what you're doing) I wrote that mostly because it sounds catchy, but basically what I mean is that you should realise you get marks for making points. Not for using special words. Obviously you want to use some special words throughout (and by special words I mean the World Lit lingo: alliteration, metaphors, caesuras etc etc) but they should be coincidental with you making a point. I used to fit them in as part of the second E in my PEE. When explaining why my point was valid I would casually mention that it was mightily effective on account of the simile and so on. In other words, they can be slotted in casually. What you should avoid is point scoring, which is kinda like name dropping only using special words. Just because you know a word to describe a literary feature and what it means, it doesn't mean it's always going to be there! The major victim of people trying to point score is "irony". In actual fact, irony is not all that pervasive in literature. It crops up every now and again, but not particularly frequently and definitely not in 80%+ of things. I'm not going to bother inventing a statistic for how often it does crop up, but just remember it's not everywhere. DO NOT say something is 'an example of irony' unless you A) are sure it's definitely an example of irony and that you know what irony is B) are willing to explain how it's an example and why this is effective This goes for any special word. If you know something is effective but don't know the special word for it (and often there isn't one), there's no harm in explaining it out. It is better to do this than to invent things or to go out of your way to include literary features just for the sake of them being there! If something if effective, just explain why. You don't need a technical term for it every time, and if you see something you know the technical term for but it isn't really effective... don't go out of your way to mention it. Tips for Writing A1 Essay Responses (Paper 2) 1. Look at past questions and use them to break down your texts for revision If you look through past paper questions, you'll spot that the sorts of questions you receive will always be about generalised things. Off the top of my head, things like Setting, Character, Beginnings and Endings, Death, Love, Chronology etc. all tend to crop up with reassuring regularity. So, this is the way in which you should approach your texts when revising them. Remember that in the actual thing you'll come across one of these sorts of questions and you will either have to sit and think for the very first time of exactly how the minor characters influenced the play (...for example...) or you'll have handily thought of it all before. Hopefully you'll agree that the second scenario is much better than the first. My advice is therefore to go through all of your texts and pick out the main points to do with these themes. Not only will you familiarise yourself with the texts in the process, but you should also find that a lot of the points can be easily recycled into your actual essay in the exam and that's the aim. Get a piece of paper, head it up with the theme you're looking at and then divide it into columns. Think of a point from one of the texts and simultaneously whether that same point can be made in another text -- i.e. compare and contrast. You might draw a blank, or you might think "well they DO mention the minor characters, but they play more of a role in narrating the life of the main characters than in providing any of the action..." = et voila, a contrast! That kind of thing. 2. Prepare all of your texts Do not favouritise texts. You will note that the questions ask you to write about 2 or more of the works you have studied. So yes, technically you only have to learn about 2. What, however, if the question in the exam asks you about Death, and nobody dies in one of the texts. You'll be stuffed. Unless you can see forward in time to know what the question will be, don't do just 2 of the texts. Do all of them. Revising them isn't really very time-consuming or difficult, and at the end of the day you'll be able to make the best comparisons if you're able to choose the best texts to compare. Simple as. 3. Use the exam time as a guide to which texts to use Again going back to the "only doing 2 texts" thing, there is NO optimum number of texts to do. You can get a 7 comparing 2 of them, and you can get a 7 comparing all 4 of them. Also 3. It depends on the question you get and how much you know to be able to write! Sometimes you'll be able to say a lot about 2 texts, sometimes you'll be able to say a little about all 4. Provided your answer is high quality and makes some good points, it'll be okay. 4. Avoid the format Text A. Text B. Text C. End. This also applies to the World Lit essays: do not write everything about Love in Text A and then everything about Love in Text B. It is infinitely easier to make good points and score better if you follow the model: Point A about Love in Text A, Point A about Love in Text B. In other words, each paragraph(ish) should be a comparison of a specific point across the texts, and you should be constantly flitting between the two or more texts. This'll give you good structure and make your essay cohesive. It's similar to the line-of-argument thinking, really. Hopefully that makes sense. 5. Learn roughly 5 quotes per text (minimum) You don't have the texts with you in the exams (unless your school is being super lax with the IB rules), however it is always good to A) do some language analysis B) show your amazing knowledge of the texts Of course you can (and definitely should) show knowledge by explaining where your examples sit in context within the texts, how they're supported or repeated throughout the text and all that sort of thing which shows the examiner that you clearly know the text well, without quoting. However, quotes are important. I would recommend you learn 4-5 quotes per text. The reason for this number? Well it's random, however it should also be sufficient. Remember that YOU are in charge of putting them in, so for all the examiner knows, you might know every word of the whole book but have just chosen to put in 2 or 3 quotes -- you can show off what you know and totally skip on what you don't know by simply explaining it rather than quoting it. Consequently, you don't need to remember lots, and you can base some of your points around your quotes to make sure you nip them in. For this reason, your quotes need to be well-selected. I would recommend that you have quotes to convey the main themes, important things about the main characters, examples of the author's style if they have a distinctive style, and at least one quote which you can do a tiny bit of literary analysis on per text. You can find these by flicking through the books and just thinking of the most important things your teachers picked out in lessons, or you'll also find that sites like Sparknotes often contain 'key' quotes which you can use to inspire you. Picture them appearing in your essay and the points you'll make from them and it'll help you pick They don't have to be long... even just 3 words long if it makes your point! 6. Make sure the essay has a sound, planned structure In my experience, people rarely run out of time for this essay. There's no line-by-line version where you can ramble on to make your point, you'll have to structure it. Again you should practice how long this is going to take you, but you should do it a bit like Tip 1. Columns to compare points across as many texts as you're going to include. This shouldn't take you too long, but make sure you introduce with a mini line-of-argument, as in Paper 1 (it's a bit harder in Paper 2 so your introduction will probably just be some major generalising about the way in which the theme pops up in the texts) -- this'll also provide you with a way to conclude. Always think how to link the previous point to the next point so your essay flows well. 7. Remember what your texts are called and who wrote them... It does not in any way shape or form help impress the examiner if you cannot get these right!! You'd be amazed what sorts of things you assume you know but will blank on in the exam, and the names of texts and authors are right up there with major things people forget. Part of this is due to the fact you'll be giving them all slang names by the end of studying them (e.g. 'Handmaids' instead of 'The Handmaid's Tale', and suddenly you'll be in the exam wondering who on earth wrote it, how many Ts there are in "At(t?)wood" and whether it was 'a' Handmaid's Tale or 'the' Handmaid's Tale or whether there was ever an extra word there at all). Really stupid things but you'll get stuck! Make sure you're spelling all of the titles, character and author's names right (don't assume you've been calling them the right name for 2 years, for instance many people reading The Outsider are very freaked that 'Mersault' has secretly been called 'Meursault' the whole time). This is the thing you will absolutely kick yourself for not getting right. 8. Always refer back to context and give examples Show you know the texts! Without retelling the story, pop in a little bit of context with all your examples, and make sure you give an example (not necessarily quoted, remember, it can just be explained) for every point you make. Don't waste your time by going into insane detail, just make it subtly obvious you know the texts with context and examples. 9. How many paragraphs should my essay have?? Okay, lots of people ask this. The answer is AS MANY AS IT NEEDS. The reason for this is the intrinsic structure of your essay. You want each paragraph/section to be illustrating a new compare/contrast point. For instance, if the Question you're given is something like... "In the texts you have studied, what is the role of time?", you want to instantly come up with comparators/contrasts. E.g.... - in Long Day's Journey Into Night, the setting changes over time to show the passing of the day and the 'journey into night' - in Waiting for Godot, the setting never changes to reflect how despite changing time, nothing actually changes - in Long Day's Journey Into Night, the mother lives mentally in the past and regresses further and further as the play goes on - in Waiting for Godot the characters are confused about the time and how long they've been there (...and then obviously a lot more points!!) Having done this you want to look at the points of comparison and contrast you've created. I would say that the points are 1. the way that time affects setting 2. the character's view of the passage of time Et voila! 2 points and ~ 2 paragraphs. Hopefully this illustrates the idea of the structure: your paragraphs/sections should represent your points, and your point should compare/contrast across all the texts you're using. In this way you end up with a good, well-structured essay that very tightly and neatly answers the question. Your points and ideas are very clear! This is, essentially, PEE again. Got to love PEE Really though, there's no point in doing X number of paragraphs as some optimum number. You'll have no idea how many points you're going to have and how many paragraphs your writing will take up until you've written it. Otherwise it's like saying that you're going somewhere nobody's ever been before, but nevertheless want somebody to advise you on the exact walking time. Just plain old bizarre. Tips for Writing WL1 Essays 1. Get your question right! "Thesis statement" or question, whatever code name it goes under, it is absolutely absolutely essential it's right. You have several things to look at to get it 'right', and these are as follows A) You will be able to write 1,500 words in answer to your question. WL essays are short and if it's not 1,450-1,500 words minimum I would suggest you've not set yourself a very good question or have failed to answer it thoroughly enough. You should be editing out minor words like crazy trying to trim it down, and definitely not stopping short of the mark. B) You will be able to answer the question extremely thoroughly within 1,500 words. If you think "oh and I could've said that, too, but I ran out of space..." you didn't set yourself a very good question! Your question must be FULLY answered in the word count. C) It will be a question! I personally think the phrase "thesis statement" can be misleading in terms of including the word statement. There should be no stating, narrating or retelling (unless it's part of briefly establishing context). You're trying to prove something by answering a task you've set yourself. If you're having difficulty finding a question, I would suggest looking again at major themes and characters as you'll invariably find at least something to compare between those. 2. Thoroughly integrate the two texts As with Paper 2 (Tip 4) make sure you constantly put one text against the other and do your best to avoid half your essay being about Text A and then half your essay being about Text B. You can't really do an analytical comparison that way, you end up just listing facts about 1 and facts about 2 -- if you're good you might be able to link Text B back every single time you spot an overlap, but that makes for difficult and messy reading and is generally not what you want to be doing if your aim is to impress. 3. Keep quotes short, simple and sweet Definitely quote! Just remember that quotes take up your word count, so the more professional you are about integrating your quotes the better. Don't quote a whole sentence if the bit you want is only in part of it. If you can edit out/in words so it makes sense in the context of what you're writing, that not only shows that you are proficient at writing and will get you brownie points for that, but also saves your word count (yay). To show an example of quotes being integrated well and quotes being integrated less well, I shall give an example -- for instance, if the sentence in the book was "Fred's tortured past was long behind him now" A 'worse' version of this might be By saying 'Fred's tortured past was long behind him now', the author contrasts the fact that his past was bleak with the fact it happened a long time ago .... A better version: Here Fred's past is described as "tortured" but the author also contrasts it with the fact that it is "long behind him now" Not the best of examples but hopefully you can see that by chopping and changing, you can quote as part of your explanation rather than quoting something and then explaining it. In the long run it reads better, saves words and is generally more efficient. 4. SHOW your knowledge of the text The best way to do this is by putting all of your examples in context. It's very important to appear to have a good working knowledge of whatever it is you're writing about and you should note that the IB specifies an appreciation of culture as one of its little keywords in the WL1 blurb. Although you should put all of the examples into the context of the novel/play/whatever itself, it's possibly worth putting some points of the novel in a more global context -- for instance if you were to pick out an example from Animal Farm with one of the pigs talking, you could extremely briefly mention the propaganda of Orwell's time and the message which he intends to convey through the character of the pigs being very relevant to its original readers. With Antigone or one of the Ancient Greek plays, pointing out how useful the Chorus is as a narrative technique given the mechanics of Greek theatres. This kind of thing is good because it shows you appreciate the style of the piece and also its original cultural context. Whatever you do do NOT go on about this for any longer than absolutely necessary. It's a World Literature piece, so any reference to non-WL stuff should be the tiniest of comments, but it's a good idea to nip in this sort of thing somewhere as it shows the examiner you appreciate a very large context to your understanding of the literature. 5. Take advantage of presenting the characters (added by Tilia) Present the characters. Don't write "X eats a potato together with Y". Instead write "The 16-year-old protagonist X eats a potato together with his best friend and neighbour, the blonde Englishman Y". This is how you show knowledge of works, criterion B. (And handily use hardly any of your word count in the process! Good tip or what?) Literary features bucket list: a short list of essentials literary features you can add to... but it's definitely useful to know these ones! Hopefully those're all helpful hints. Please feel free to post some of your own and I'll edit them into this thread with some credit -- only if they're decent, of course, although I'm sure they will be (so no "bring a pen" comments!) xP Or if you have constructive comments to make on the tips already up there, those are also welcome.
  27. 1 point
    I did mine on the illegal kidney trade. You shouldn't read off any powerpoint presentation that you make but make sure you have visual aids. Or give out hand outs so that people can follow your presentation. Make sure you are well versed with what you're going to say and that you have key pointers in case you do forget something. Time yourself. It has to be 10-15 minutes but short and concised is better than long and dreary. Keep it entertaining, engage your audience. Use different mediums like a debate or a Q&A session between audience memebers and yourself and finish it off with a summary. Present both sides of the argument and then give your personal opinion. Don't be boring, don't make it sound scripted, don't be monotone, don't be longwinded, don't say something too controversial, don't speak too fast, don't speak too slow, don't be biased Even though it's cringeworthy, practice your presentation before hand in front of your parents/friends and get feedback on your style etc. Sticky-ing this topic
  28. 0 points

    Version 1.0.0


    Hi This is my first 20/20 in an English A Lit HL Paper 1 exam and as lots of people asked, I thought I might as well just upload it here! Good luck everyone! Daisy.
  29. 0 points


    Want your essay to be sophisticated and 7-level? This document has great key expressions including multiple tenses (conditional, subjunctive) and idioms. Used and tested, got me a 7
  30. 0 points


    Compilation of definitions, notes and guidance for Spanish A students.
  31. 0 points


    An Economics Internal Assessment in Macroeconomics discussing tax cuts in France and their likely effects on the French economy, unemployment and inflation. Contains teacher comments. Enjoy!
  32. 0 points

    Version 1


    An Economics Internal Assessment that discusses interest rates in the United Kingdom.
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