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caliefleurette

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  1. So Filmeurs. is out in the world! Filmeurs. is a website I made for young debuting filmeurs (aka amateur film actors, directors, composers, filmmaking lovers) like me to share their experiences with film. If you've made a film, this site allows you to post it online and talk about it to the filmeur community! If you think you're a filmeur (or filmeuse), go have a look at Filmeurs. ! I would be super happy if you shared this: even if you're not a fimeurs, one of your friends might be. http://filmeurs.weebly.com/ If you know about film/film music/film apps, writing an article for Filmeurs. can earn you CAS points! (You can totally do it even if you're just passionate about filmmaking): contact me via [email protected] if interested. ‪#‎filmeursforever‬
  2. So Filmeurs. is out in the world! Filmeurs. is a website I made for young debuting filmeurs (aka amateur film actors, directors, composers, filmmaking lovers) like me to share their experiences with film. If you think you're a filmeur (or filmeuse), go have a look at Filmeurs. ! I would be super happy if you shared this: even if you're not a fimeurs, one of your friends might be. http://filmeurs.weebly.com/ If you know about film/film music/film apps, writing an article for Filmeurs. can earn you CAS points! (You can totally do it even if you're just passionate about filmmaking): contact me via [email protected] if interested. ‪#‎filmeursforever‬
  3. Hello! I would be extremely grateful if you could take the time to read my essay and tell me if it's good or bad and what there is to improve. I really need a 7 for this, so don't hold back any constructive critiques. There is not enough space here to express my thankfulness. The question is: To what extent was the Cold War caused by Truman's policies? Harry S. Truman became President of the United States on 12 April 1945, following the death of Franklin D. Roosevelt, amidst profound concern about his capacity for national or world leadership. Still today some blame him for starting the Cold War, while others say he had 'saved western civilisation' from Soviet aggression. This essay will discuss the evidence for the validity of the American Revisionist view of the Cold War and the elements proving that Truman policies were not the only explanation for the 46 year long conflict. Numerous Truman policies brought tensions between the US and USSR post World War II. The Truman Doctrine was the first action that put distance between the two parties on paper. The contrasting language used by the President at the announcement of the doctrine drew the frontier between the “rule of the minority†and the “free peopleâ€. From this day, the US would “support free peoples who are resisting [...] pressures to control them†and put a very negative light on the “second way of lifeâ€. This put the discordance into practice: rather than trying to find a compromise, Truman imposes the policy of containment, making the US the “world policemanâ€. Truman’s decision to take armament as a sign of superiority in 1945 was miscalculated. The US believed that the atomic bomb would establish their superiority and stop the USSR “expansionâ€. However, this created more competition between the two parties and pushed the USSR to state their superiority in turn. The USSR tested their first successful atomic bomb only 4 years after Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The Marshall Plan drew the line between the two parties economically. Williams states that Truman wanted to ensure US markets as to not see the 1930’s crisis repeat again: the Marshall plan clearly fulfils this desire, officially launching the “open door†policy. USSR was not ready to accept this in Eastern Europe, as it needed economic partners of similar ideology to recover from the Second World War and ensure their political domination. Although the Plan was said not to be “against any country or doctrineâ€, it was perceived as a mere extension of the Truman Doctrine and a smoke screen for US expansionism. The Plan gave another dimension to the Soviet suspicion and was responded to by the creation of Cominform. Lastly, merging France’s and the UK’s German territory with his own in 1947, Truman puts Stalin under the impression that the East is merging against the USSR. This sense of opposition was underlined by the creation of the Deutsche Mark, making trade between the two Germanys more difficult. This was the spark that started the Berlin Blockade in the same month, and officially physicalized the Cold War. Although Truman is often accused of having destroyed the status quo built by Roosevelt, according to Dallek, Roosevelt had started to change the tone with Soviets before his death. The concrete ideology of Stalin clashed with Roosevelt’s idealistic ones created a climate in which actions of the other were interpreted in the light of their own priorities, further increasing suspicion and tensions. Roosevelt’s death still greatly worsened US diplomatic relations. Stalin became even more suspicious of the US, as he had respect for Roosevelt, which made fruitful discussions between the two antonyms easier. Truman had no experience with foreign policy and was advised by American politicians who didn’t believe in the status quo established by Roosevelt. Stalin’s vision of post war Germany, crave for security and his paranoia greatly contributed to the outbreak of the cold war. After Hitler’s Operation Barbarossa in 1941, Stalin stopped trusting anyone, both in and outside the USSR. This was show by many decisions on his part, including speech. Stalin expressed his apathy for capitalism, his suspicion for the US and said a clash between the two parties was inevitable, all prior to any official US plans made against the USSR. He also misunderstood the liberal democratic systems, seeing officials’ inability to commit themselves directly as a lack of trust from western government. The different understanding of democracy led to the Salami tactics, ensuring a USSR buffer zone from 1945. This proved the extent to which Stalin could act to have control and power, opposing the two spheres of influences before Truman was in office. Besides, it is arguable that the USSR opposition to Truman’s policies wasn’t necessary. Even though the USSR needed economic aid from the Marshall Plan, Molotov refused any discussions on how the money should be spent on a European scale in a conference between the UK and France. The acceptance of this aid could have improved the country’s economical state faster and would have opened discussions between the two sides without “enslaving†the USSR, as the plan was destined not to be against “any ideologyâ€. The refusal to join the ILF, OECD or WTO and non-cooperation in the United Nations only contributed to tensions and closed the doors to peaceful coexistence and economic partners for the USSR. Although Truman’s policies had a great impact on the US-USSR rivalry, they were not the sole reasons for the Cold War. Stalin’s mistrust and misunderstanding of the US and the USSR’s refusal to see a world reshaped by the US would lead to a superpower clash. After the death of Stalin, Khrushchev attempted a peaceful coexistence of the two parties the « only one way out ». However, the Cuban missile crisis proved that the historical antagonism and crucial differences could only lead to the destruction of one or the other.
  4. Thanks so much! yes proof reading it i found mistakes :/ and yes that's what i meant... I owe you one! Best,
  5. I can't help you with visual arts however you can take up to 7 subjects in the IB if you want (and have the courage) to. Chemistry SL is slightly challenging (I missed a year of chem post IB which might explain why) for me but interesting if you like challenge and discovering amazing stuff. My friends in Geo love it there, but I can't guide you much more than that. If you're really struggling to choose, think of two things: 1- What things do you think you could spend your time doing on your weekends? 2- What do you wanna do later? hope it helps a little Good luck
  6. Thanks so much! so I tried again: In what ways, and to what extent, was the Second World War "total war"? A total war is defined as a conflict where nearly all the resources of a society are employed to defeat an opponent. The Second World War can be considered as the quintessential modern total war both by its physical and ideological scale. This essay will explore the different ways by which the 1939-1942 war can be qualified as a definite total war. The Second World War was, above all, a war of ideas. In fact, the countries involved majorly used political relations and economical redirection in order to win the war. An example of major political action is the Alliance system established before the conflict started. All the countries in the war were attached to two main “political clans”: the alliance and the axis. The political agreements within the two groups allowed the coordination of military and economical plans. Without the alliance system many military operation would have failed: the invasion of Normandy in 1944 would most probably not have been successful if the British and American governments didn’t join forces, considering the strength of the German military plans on the French coast. The fighting countries were forced to redirect their industries to the military in order to be successful in the war. In Germany, from 1936 to 1939, two thirds of the industrial production was directed to war. Workers had longer days, French Vichy workers were imported to improve the rate of production and women were called to fulfil their husband’s jobs despite the Mother role they were assigned by Nazi ideology. Economically wise, the people’s need were not fully satisfied as in peace times so that so that government could afford their military development. Ration tickets were reintroduced in multiple European countries and Japan, where even cloth was rationed (most was used for the military). In the US, no cars were produced from 1943 to 1944 and the fridge production was completely stopped throughout the war. This shows that states directed the industry to produce scientifically and mechanically advanced artillery in order to win the war, desired success at which all production was directed to. In this war, like in a total war, the military was intensely used and pushed to its best competence in air, land and sea. All countries directed their economies and research departments for the army: Generals and scientists worked to create the most destructive tactics and weapons. The German Blitzkrieg was the military tactic used to conquer Poland and expand the Nazi lebensraum. The tactic used air bombing of the areas to be conquered followed by tanks and troops armed with the newest and most efficient weaponry of the time. This tactic was the fastest and most destructive ever put in place in the 20th century and required the best weapons and generals in order to succeed. Another example is the battle of the Atlantic was the concentration of the most elaborate technology with the development of radars and submarines. Finally, the development of the Manhattan project proves that countries redirected all their areas of development to victory. The $2 billion project was destined to destroy Hitler’s forces and was used in Hiroshima and Nagasaki: the development of the great scientific advancement of splitting an uranium atom, extremely difficult to achieve given the means of the time. The efforts made to be the most efficient militarily, from researches in sciences and schools to the education future generals (Nazi Elite Schools), prove once again that all fields in battling countries were directed to the achievement of victory. However what truly makes the Second World War a ‘total war’ is the importance opposing parties attached to citizens and their social and cultural order. Because a main part of the conflict was the war of perspective, populations were deeply engaged and manipulated by ideas. The French Resistance emitted pirate radios and spread ideas secretly in order to counter the German propaganda and was physically fighting in France, driven by the ideas of the Alliance. Propaganda was used in all countries to gain the support of its population. The Ministry of Public Enlightenment and Propaganda in Nazi Germany generated messages by radio, posters, rallies, books and films. The Nazi ideology was spread everywhere and the Gestapo watched for ones who didn’t listen to it and respect it. New laws were made so that the German people would follow the Fuhrer all the way or be executed. This proves how the two “groups of ideas” were powerful and dangerous in both alliances. Above all, instead of focusing on the opponent’s army like in the First World War, the civilian populations were the main targets of the military. Rather than staying in the trenches like in the First World War, leaders use the threat of eradicating civilians, what they found more powerful than uniquely using their armies. The Blitz, bombing of German cities by the British and American combat planes, used the most efficient bombers and techniques of the time and aimed at cities more than supply lines at the end of the war. The bombings lead to thousands of deaths, more of homeless and the eradication of entire cities such as Hamburg and Dresden. This plan destabilized Germany and greatly helped to speed up the end of the war as Hitler’s Third Reich people starting loosing faith in their leaders. This shows how that not only the soldiers were engaged in the war: the entire population was used, manipulated by parties and ideas. The Second World War was fully a total war as all areas of growth of a participating country were turned to the conflict: the economy, the political and social sphere, the military and most predominantly the culture. Both the Alliance and the Axis relied heavily on the full involvement of a country to win the military and ideological war. The entire populations were part of an army: by being workers, ambassadors, soldiers, scientist part of a rebel group or simply by living in a particular place. Every part of a country was fighting for their nation or sometimes against it. Thanks so much!
  7. So I have an essay to do on WW2 (900 words) but i'm not sure if my structure is good. I'm not finished yet but Could anyone give me tips ? In what ways, and to what extent, was the Second World War "total war"? A total war is a conflict where nearly all the resources of a society are employed to defeat an opponent. The Second World War can be considered as the quintessential modern total war both by its physical and ideological scale. This essay will discuss the different ways by which the 1939-1942 war can be qualified as a total war. The Second World War was, above all, a war of ideas. The countries involved majorly used political relations and economical redirection in order to win the war. An example of major political action is the Alliance system established before the conflict started. All the countries in the war were attached to two main “political clans”: the alliance and the axis. The political agreements within the two groups allowed the coordination of military and economical plans. Without the alliance system many military operation would have failed: the invasion of Normandy in 1944 would most probably not have been successful if the British and American governments didn’t join forces, considering the strength of the German military plans. The fighting countries were forced to redirect their industries to the military in order to be successful in the war. In Germany, from 1936 to 1939, two thirds of the industrial production was directed to war. Workers had longer days, French workers were imported to improve the rate of production and women were called to fulfil their husband’s jobs despite the Mother role they were assigned by Nazi ideology. Ration tickets were reintroduced in multiple European countries and Japan, where even cloth was rationed (most was used for the military). In the US, no cars were produced from 1943 to 1944 and the fridge production was completely stopped throughout the war. This was because the government directed the industries to produce cars and scientifically advanced weapons, such as the atomic bomb. Like in all total wars, the military was intensely used in air, land and sea. All countries directed their economy and research departments to the army: Generals and scientists worked to create the most destructive weapons. The German Blietzkreig was the military tactic used to conquer Poland and expand the Nazi lebenstraum. The tactic used air bombing followed by tanks and troops armed with the newest weaponry of the time. The battle of the Atlantic was the concentration of the most elaborate technology with the development of radars and submarines. The last example we can use is the development of the Manhattan project. The $2 billion project was destined to destroy Hitler’s forces and was used even after the test proved the massive destruction it could cause. However, what truly makes the Second World War a ‘total war’ is the importance attached to citizens, their social and cultural order. Because a main par of the conflict was a war of perspective, the population was deeply engaged and manipulated by ideas. Propaganda was used in all countries to gain the support of its population. The Ministry of Public Enlightenment and Propaganda in Nazi Germany generated messages by radio, posters, rallies, books and films. The Nazi ideology was spread everywhere and the Gestapo watched for ones who wouldn’t listen and respect it. New laws were made so that the German people would follow the Fuhrer all the way or be executed. Even thought it was at a smaller scale, the French Resistance emitted pirate radios and spread ideas secretly in order to counter the German one and was physically fighting in France. This proves how the two “groups of ideas” were powerful in both alliances. Above all, civilian population was the main target militarily. The Blitz, bombing of German cities by the British and American combat planes, lead to thousands of deaths and the eradication of entire cities such as Hamburg and Dresden. =>POW My conclusion here
  8. Thank you so much! I feel the same for your first paragraph. Thank you.
  9. Hello everyone So.... I'm kinda lost to be very informal. I wanted to do my extended essay about French songs in WW1 as tools of propaganda, but my supervisor told me it was to narrow and so she proposed to study the differences and similarities of Clemenceau's and Petain's propaganda, as one was in a 'free' France and the other 'under nazi control'. I feel that it's enormously broad but yeah. The thing is I don't really know how to structure this essay. Should I go through all the means of propaganda and analyse ≠ and = of the two governments? My supervisor wasn't very helpful with this... (she didn't even remember I was under her supervision...) Some guidance/tips/ideas would be immensely nice and would save me. Thank you
  10. Okay so for question 1 the answer would be -500?
  11. Hello everyone, I'm very stuck on the following exercises... could someone help please? 1) Cu+(1/2)O2-->CuO Enthalpy=-156 2Cu+(1/2)O2​-->Cu2O Enthalpy=-170 What is the value of the enthalpy of 2CuO-->Cu2O+(1/2)O2 I thought I could do +156-170 but it's not one of the possible choice a) 142 b) 15 c)-15 d)-142 2) The mass M (in g) of a substance of specific heat capacity c (in J/g/K) increases by t°C. What is the heat change in J? I'm very confused of how to do it, even though I think Q=M*CH2O*t°C is involved Thanks!
  12. Well my problem is that when i just freeze it at -25°c and then observe it under the microscope, there is no crystal, just bubbles... Dry ice to keep it cold? how would that help? it has a melting point of -56 degrees... I don't understand.. (thanks for the tips so far)
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