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  1. Lots of people seem to have trouble with the Causes of the Spanish Civil War, so as revision for my exam tomorrow I'm gonna make it simple through a guide, containing all of the essay factors! To start, the political spectrum: Right Wing - Nationalists. Includes Army, Church, landowners, monarchists, CEDA, and Franco's Fascist Party, Falange. Left Wing - Republicans. Includes socialists, communists, anarchists, trade unionists and moderate liberals. The Long-Term causes include Socio-Economic, Army and Church, and political system/factors. These led to a desire for change, which manifests itself in the short term cause of the Second Republic 1931-1936. This led to polarisation between left and right, and the trigger factors of Popular Front, Assassination of Sotelo and the failed military coup. Now for some more detail: LONG TERM FACTORS (1800s - 1930) Socio-Economic Spain is poor and weak, economically backwards, mainly agricultural and uneducated.Rural unrest due to poor conditions: 2/3 of Spain's population were poor peasants, and those working on large estates known as 'latifundios' in the South were exploited by landowners, accepting near starvation level wages as disruption = fired.Towns were not much better - child labour and low wages present, however it was easier to join political groups that the ruling classes feared.Economy improved during World War One, but this was short lived and did not benefit the poor.Socio-Economics can be assessed as greatly important, due to consequential divisions - for example, Separatism in which the richer areas of Catalonia and Basque desired autonomy/independence and had their own language/culture. Also, it led to a desire for change due to starvation and fear of the elite.Army and Church Army stood as a form of repression via tortures and shootings, and was hated for the way it brutally put down strikes with help from the armed police (Civil Guard)Church was unpopular and limited education: as late as the 1900s, 64% of the population was illiterate. Church was also responsible for propaganda against liberalism, communism and democracy, and worked with the Army to utilise the feared 'INQUISITION' in order to produce blind obedience. The Church justified the Army's violence, and both were totally opposed to Basque and Catalonian separatism - they were both a Nationalistic force.Can be accredited a crucial role in outbreak of SCW due to the fear, anger and divisions they caused, especially amongst the lower class. Again, the emphasis is that it led to a desire for change.Political Political system and monarchy Constitutional monarchy under King Alfonso XIII.Elections/laws/parliament formed to benefit ruling class, not poor.Despite there being universal male suffrage since 1887, politics were surprisingly right wing.Elections and politics were rigged to remain this way, by brutal thuggish 'caciques' in favour of Liberals and Conservatives.Added to political divisions, but not as high impact as socio-economic tensions and fear of Army/Church in my view.Left/Right division Two major left wing parties: anarchists and socialists. They did not get along and refused to cooperate, with socialists feeling they were respectful of the law and that reasoned discussion would one day resolve Spanish issues. The anarchists thought that the socialists supported repression, and resented them for not being willing to fight for worker rights.Anarchists had a trade union called the CNT and Socialist trade union was called the UGT.Both of these parties were opposed to/ hostilities with the right wing.Significant, but can be called a catalyst showing clear opposed sides instead of a fundamental cause.Dictatorship of Miguel Primo 1923-1930 Due to defeats and humiliation in Morocco, King Alfonso allowed a military dictatorship under General Miguel Primo de Rivera as of 1923, severely undermining the monarchy in the process.Primo split the left wing by allowing the socialist UGT trade union, but driving underground and banning the Anarchists and their CNT trade union.He created mass opposition against him by failing to reform the tax system/economy, did not give peasants the land reform they wanted, and withdrew Catalonian rights.He is a good cause of war, as his failures caused problems to fester, and united left opposition saw him forced out of office in 1930, with subsequent votes calling overwhelmingly for the abdication of King Alfonso and a new Republic.SHORT TERM FACTOR - THE SECOND REPUBLIC 1931-1936. Left Republic: April 1931 - November 1933 Left took office first: the Republicans, under a man named Azana.They widely reformed: started secular education/abolished support of Church ; Reduced army size/number of officers ; allowed autonomy for Catalonia and land reforms for peasants.The result; however, was disappointing. Land reforms were blocked by the landowners, and were ineffective, and strikes were put down. Reforms were 'too much' for the right, and 'too little' for the left.Led to an increase in right wing opposition. A new right-wing group, known as CEDA (mass catholic party), formed under a man named Gil Robles to counter the Left.Azana's Republican government crumbled in September 1933, and following elections were won by the right.Right Republic: November 1933 - February 1936 New Radical CEDA government reversed the reforms of the Left Republic in what was called the ''two black years''Violent repression against the left: an example is how Francisco Franco's Army of Africa crushed an Anarchist uprising in the Asturias coalfield in October 1934.Due to a financial scandal, the Right Republic collapsed in February 1936.On the whole, the Second Republic an important cause, as much polarisation and tension can be attributed to it. TRIGGER FACTORS IN 1936 Popular Front - A popular front (basically the left wing parties united) took charge following the collapse of the Right Republic, furthering polarisation as Franco responded by forming the fascist 'Falange' party (inspired by Hitler) which planned a military coup/takeover. Assassination - Although plans were already underway for a coup, these were accelerated when a leading right wing monarchist named Jose Calvo Sotelo was assassinated by a socialist bodyguard in July 1936. Failed military coup - this was attempted under the leadership of Franco in July 1936, but it failed. This action of the army was to start the Civil War to conquer Spain, fought bitterly until 1939 between the Republicans and the Nationalists under Franco, resulting in Nationalist victory and Franco's fascist regime in Spain from 1939~1975 Hope this helps! (and comes up in tomorrow's Paper 2....)
  2. How do you structure the body of an Extended Essay? I'm going to do mine in History, probably on Mao's 100 Flowers Campaign, and I'm unsure as to how to plan it. For example, if someone was doing their EE on the causes of WW1 (too broad of a topic, I know, but bear with me), would they do each body paragraph on a different cause? Or would some paragraphs try to disprove/argue against other paragraphs? How do you do it? If I have to do 8 paragraphs on 8 different causes, then I think I might struggle!
  3. Hi guys, There's some basic but informative summaries on this page: http://scoopsheets.com/20th-century-history/ If you need a quick summary or overview of the causes of the world wars I'd look there, there's not loads of other stuff but it looks like it's only just been set up so hopefully there's more to come!
  4. “Compare and contrast the causes, nature and consequences of the two revolutions in 1917 (February and October)†Someone please help!!! This is really urgent!!! Thanks
  5. Version .pdf


    Militarism as a cause of WW1 is evaluated
  6. 43 downloads

    An essay on the causes of WW1. Received a low 5 (9/20)
  7. 59 downloads

    A collection of dates, evidence, quotes and historiography on the causes of the Cold War. This kind of stuff is vital to any essay in order to get a 6/7.
  8. 44 downloads

    Notes on the causes of the Spanish civil war and the results. Also included are the reasons for foreign intervention, and the impact of the foreign intervention. Several historian views are included throughout the document. This is good for revision not if you are just learning about the Spanish civil war right at this moment.
  9. Is it common that questions about Japan's role in the origins of WWII appear on paper two?
  10. Hi Everyone; I am writing an essay on the important causes of World War 1, and it seems like there are many minor causes that contribute to the outbreak of war. I am having a hard time finding the appropriate causes to write about. Also I want to divide my essay to long-term and short-term causes (as my history teacher recommends), but I am not sure what is what. I have narrowed it down to a few topics, however I don't know if I am missing any important points. Help please! So far, I have chosen these; - Tangle of Alliances/Mutual Defense Alliances + Past Treaties (treaty of London 1839) - Specific Events (First and Second Balkan War, Franco-Prussian war) - Militarism, nationalism and imperialism in Europe - Colonies and their importance - Rise of Germany as a Great Power in Europe
  11. 35 downloads

    Here is a fact file on the causes of WW1, in a timeline format (detail for each event).
  12. 72 downloads

    A collection of Details (evidence!) and Quotes (Historiography!) on the causes of World War One
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