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Lc's Guide to Writing an Essay!

HMSChocolate's At-a-Glance Guide to the Logical Academic Argument

Plagiarism, Academic Dishonesty and How to Avoid Them

Frequently Asked Questions About Essay-Writing and IB Essays

Julie's "The 6+1 Writing Trait System"

VIP Only: Downloadable PDF supplement documents on writing skills.

See also this thread for guide about Extended Essay

Looking for help/advice with referencing and citations? Click Here!

Lc's Guide to Writing an Essay!

Well, I've been correcting a few world lit essays and TOK essays.. and I've noticed that most of what is discussed is amazing! And I find myself correcting the structure of the essay itself rather than the content. So I decided to make this handy thread to direct you all as to how to write an Essay. Not a TOK essay, not a history essay, not an english essay. Just a general essay!

Introduction

Body

Conclusion

Introduction

The oh so feared start of the essay. Most of you find yourselves uncertain as to how to start your essay, and you may feel uncomfortable at the start.

Try starting your essay with a claim related to the title/question you are discussing. For example for the title: Define the religious role of Mecca in Pre-Islamic Arabia something along the lines of : "Mecca was considered as a religious center in pre-Islamic Arabia" would be an appropriate way to start your essay. Then some description of the location of Mecca and a general cultural mentality of that time would be appropriate to follow this sentence.

Next you're going to start thinking of your Thesis. Of course you can have a Thesis statement in one sentence or various sentences, :P really depends on your topic. For the same above topic this might be appropriate: Mecca was considered a religious center mainly because of the presence of the objects which were the Zamzam spring, and the Kaba where pilgrimage had taken place for three months every year, by pilgrims from all over Arabia and further countries

See that little sentence just defined the whole of my essay. It clearly gave the reader (AKA the examiner) an idea of what exactly I will be arguing later on in my essay.

Let's take another example you might relate to better. Since Islamic History is not such a popular subject, I'll go for English A1.

To start an unseen commentary, describing what exactly is happening in the poem/prose or what the poem/prose is about would be the most appropriate way to start. You may think this is uncreative and cliche, but trust me the simpler you are the better you are understood and show understanding of what you are reading. So for example - if you can access the "Bell Jar" text which was May 05 if I recall correctly - something like the following would be a good way to start your essay:

"The text speaks about a ski trip which two characters, Esther and Buddy, took."

Can't be more blunt than that can you? This clearly shows that I understand the text overall. Next is to show you understood it's specifics hence where you start defining the literary most RELEVANT in this prose, like so: "Symbols of authority are evident although the text, mostly associated to Buddy. He pushes and pushes, until she is pushed down a mountainous slope, which could be a metaphor in itself. The chronology of the events parallels to the chronology of Buddy's effect on Esther; as the distance between Esther and Buddy increases, so does his psychological affect on her." So I've made it clear through this thesis that I will be discussing imagery, characterization and the relationship between characters, and the structure of the prose.

One last example would be when writing a TOK essay. Like any other essay, the introduction of a TOK essay is the most important part in the sense that it will clarify to the examiner what you are to discuss later on in the essay. So if you were to have a good argument and a bad introduction.. it would make your essay seem vague and in need to just GET TO THE POINT...

Ahem sorry this is just really sensitive *sniff*.

Explaining an idea or claim is the process of providing a proof, or otherwise logical conclusion about the cause of a phenomenon. Although the previous definition I have claimed may categorize many situations, the word explain is too subjective to have a clear definition. Its subjectivity lies in its meaning being relative to what it is a person is trying to explain. I noticed through the different ways of knowing people express and obtain different method of explaining. So how do mathematicians, historians and scientists use the word explain?

Body

Ahh the body! Where your argument resides :lol:

This is where you prove your thesis wrong or right! Where - by providing the proper examples - you may convince me that milk is green and grass is white! Now here's what helps you look like you know what you're talking about:

A topic sentence for each paragraph: Basically this means that you should have like a mini intro to your paragraphs. A topic sentence is a sentence in the beginning of the paragraph which clarifies to the reader what you intend to discuss in the paragraph. In my first year English A1 course, I found myself writing topic sentences which showed that I want to discuss a certain image in a poem I would be writing a commentary for, and then I'd just randomly move on to talk about tone or something else :D This showed how confused I was about writing commentaries :P An example of me doing this is in my first world lit draft:

There is also a difference in portraying the two authorities through imagery. Bernardas authority was mainly emphasised with the presence of her stick, especially the physical authority on her daughters. Bernarda achieves respect by inflicting fear on other character, especially the servant and Poncia.

See I started off by indicating I would talk about imagery and only that in my paragraph, then after writing one sentence about the imagery I moved on to how Bernarda inflicted her authority! DO NOT DO THIS!

Well structured paragraphs: this means you should jump form one idea to another which has nothing to do with the previous one in two consecutive paragraphs. Your essay should show some form of flaw of thought, when you go from discussing for example the problem of knowledge of history being written with the bias of the historian, to discussing the fact that knowledge in the natural sciences is objective in the next paragraph. Your transformation from one idea to another should be flawless :P else you will seem confused to the examiner.

Well argued ideas: Don't just state your ideas; provide analysis, examples, comments and anything which shows that you're not just stating the obvious but are discussing something you fully understand!

Be convincing: The most helpful notion which I had in my head while writing essays was to try to convince people that what I am saying is right! This would help you to write strong essays in general :D

Conclusion

By the time you get to the conclusion you could either:

- Be too frustrated by the whole of the confusion in the essay, you'd write anything just to finish it off and get on with life

- Reread the whole of your essay, realize what it is you argued all through your essay, then conclude your ideas in one small paragraph in the end.

I'd suggest the latter. When I say conclude your ideas I don't mean mention each one in the end and make a conclusive statement about each, you don't want to end up with a 400 word conclusion paragraph :D

there are no 1,2,3s of writing a conclusion which I know of... so here are some examples that might give you an idea of what I'm talking about:

In conclusion, Mecca was formed in a religious base, and had flourished due to the presence of religious objects such as the Zamzam water, the kaba, the Haram, and the black stone. So the religious role of Mecca is the basic function of the presence of Mecca.
Overall the poet used imagery, structure and diction to portray his idea of the unreliability of speech, or in his words the sentences (which) starts out like a lone traveler. Although he was successful in portraying his idea he was, however, not convincing in a realistic sense.

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HMSChocolate's At-a-Glance Guide to the Logical Academic Argument

(Not for the colour-blinded :lol: )

The logical academic argument should have:

  • Topic sentence (What the hell are you going to talk about?)
  • Elaboration of topic sentence (Then what?)
  • Explanation of significance of topic sentence (So what?)
  • Evidence for (How do you know this?)
  • Evidence against (if any) (Is there any thing saying it isn't true?)
  • Evidence supported with references (if any) (Where did you get this information? Can come in the form of footnotes. Here I used the Harvard referencing system.)
  • Analysis of evidence (What do the evidence mean?)
  • Re-iteration or qualification of significance of evidence, to come to a conclusion. (What's the point of all this?)

Example:

The cat sat on the mat. The outcome of this was that the mat became flat and this indicates that cats should be kept off mats. According to Smith (2004), mats that have cats sitting on them suffer deflation effects. On the other hand, studies by David (2005) suggest that cats sitting on mats have no deflation effect whatsoever. However, as David's studies were done on new-born cats only, this claim is not convincing and therefore negligible. Therefore, we can come to the conclusion that when cats sit on mats, the mats become deflated and thus, we should keep cats off mats if these mats are to remain in full shape.

~*~

What makes a good essay?

A successful academic essay should satisfy the critical thinking criteria, by consistently doing all or almost all of the following:

  • Accurately interprets evidence
  • Identifies the salient arguments for and against
  • Thoughtfully evaluates alternative points of view
  • Draws justified conclusions based on clearly explained reasons
  • Accurately and appropriately uses and/or cites source material
  • Presents ideas in a coherent, clear and technically correct maner.

Source: Euson, Baden. Communicating in the 21st Century. Milton, John Wiley & Sons Australia, 2005.

Post by: Ruan Chun Xian

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Plagiarism, Academic Dishonesty and How to Avoid Them

IBO's Guidance for Schools on Academic Honesty

This document outlines the IBO's policies towards academic malpractice and plagiarism, how schools should go about maintaining academic honesty and how investigations of these issues are carried out by the IBO if need arises. It's worth having a skim through.

Academic_Honesty.pdf

In brief, however:

What is an authentic piece of work?

"An authentic piece of work is one that is based on the candidate’s individual and original ideas with the ideas and work of others fully acknowledged. Therefore,

all assignments, written or oral, completed by a candidate for assessment must wholly and authentically use that candidate’s own language and expression. Where sources are used or referred to, whether in the form of direct quotation or paraphrase, such sources must be fully and appropriately acknowledged."

From Section 1.2 of attached document.

What is malpractice?

"The Regulations define malpractice as behaviour that results in, or may result in, the candidate or any other candidate gaining an unfair advantage in one or more assessment component." This includes, but not limited to, misconduct in the examination, having unauthorised information about the exam before it takes place, disclosing information about the exam to candidates not yet taken the exam or discussing the exam with anyone from outside the candidate's immediate school community before 24 hours have passed since examination time.

More detailed descriptions provided in Section 2.1 of attached document.

What is plagiarism?

"The Regulations define plagiarism as the representation of the ideas or work of another person as the candidate’s own." This includes direct quoting, paraphrasing, using ideas and expressions, inclusion of any material such as music, pictures etc in the candidate's own work without direct referencing of the source.

For more details, see Sections 2.2 and 2.3 of the attached document.

What happens if I plagiarise?

This question should not even be posed. But it frequently is. The answer is: You will get caught, and when you are, you lose your diploma. Simple as that. Just don't do it!

How does IBO detect plagiarism?

Another question that shouldn't be asked. No one really know for sure, but rumours have it they use turnitin, which is a database software that scans and stores academic essays from all over. When your essay is scanned through this software, it picks up on the percentage of your work that match the archived materials in the database. It does not, however, matter how they detect plagiarism. What matters is that they do and people have got caught plagiarising and have suffered the consequences. Just don't do it!

How do I not plagiarise?

You can avoid plagiarism by referencing all outside material you used for all your IAs and other assessments handed into the IBO. This means acknowledge and credit materials that are not your own to their rightful sources. Getting into the habit of referencing will be good in the long run as well, as you will need to continue to do it at university. You don't get away with plagiarism at university either.

Here are several referencing guides that you can consult (PDF files):

Harvard Referencing system - In-text

APA Referencing style - In-text

MLA Referencing style - In-text

Oxford Referencing style - Footnotes

The IBO does not specify which style you have to use, but it is useful to stick to one and be consistent. Personally I think that the Oxford footnote system more handy with IB as the footnotes do not add to your word count. With in-text referencing, your referencing does count in your overall word count.

Post by: Ruan Chun Xian

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Frequently Asked Questions About Essay-Writing and IB Essays

1. Will you write an essay for me?

No. Enough said.

2. How do I write an essay?

See the first post in this thread.

3. How do I start an essay?

See answer to Question 2.

:P Ok, so you want some real questions and answers?

4. Do footnotes count in the word count?

No. Don't ask again. :P They don't!

5. Do referencing count in the word count?

In-text referencing (i.e. referencing that appears straight in the body of the essay such as Harvard style referencing) does count in the word count, but referencing as footnotes do not.

6. Do definitions in the footnotes count in the word count?

Again, no. But it's not exactly wise to squeeze a lot of definitions in the footnotes. One or two maximum per essay is probably plenty, more than that is just making it very obvious to the examiner that you are trying to reduce your word count with this trick.

7. What is an abstract and how do I write it?

The abstract is a necessary (read: compulsory) part of your EE. It is a 300 words (for the EE) piece of writing that should only be written after you have finished your final draft of your essay. It serves as a sypnopsis or overview of your whole essay, telling the examiner in those 300 words, what your essay is about, your main arguments and the conclusions you reach. Kind of like a blurb of it, if you will. Be straight and to the point. It's only 300 words.

8. What is the difference between a Bibliography and a Reference List?

A bibliography is a list of all the books/sources you used for the essay regardless of whether you've quoted them in your essay or not.

A reference list is a list of the sources you've quoted only!

Most IB essays ask for a bibliography.

9. What is an Appendix (plural: Appendices) and do I need to include them?

An Appendix is additional material that support your essay but is too large/bulky/long to put into the body of the essay. Can include large quotes or excerpts from books, or large tables and diagrams, questionnaires, photos, pictures, maps etc. They are not compulsory but often with subjects where large amount of primary data and data processing are necessary, Appendices do come in highly useful.

In subjects like History and Languages A1 (especially with the EE) they come in useful as a way to "hide" extra words (as Appendices do not count in the word count), where you can stick large descriptive explanations necessary to the essay or long quotes in Appendices to cut your word count. However, you should do this very carefully and don't include any of your own analysis in Appendices as they are meant to stay in your essay.

Appedices should be used carefully. Don't just stick in an Appendix because you feel like it. You have to refer to the material in the Appendix in the essay, otherwise it's useless. Also, keep in mind that examiners are not strictly required to read Appendices.

Appendices (where there are more than 1) are named by letters of the alphabet, thus: Appendix A, Appendix B, Appendix C etc.

How should the essay be presented/what is the format of the essay/what information should be on the cover page?

This is a suggestion only. On the whole, your essay should look neat, professional, and easy to read.

Sample_presentation_of_a_document.pdf

Post by: Ruan Chun Xian

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The 6+1 Writing Trait System

This is what my English A1 teacher calls the 6+1 Trait Writing System. It is really handy, and I just want to touch on the main points and explain them below for people who get confused or stuck when organizing they essays, choosing ideas, choosing their word choice, recognizing their sentence fluency, etc.

Ideas:

  • Definition: The heart of the message, the content of the piece, the main theme, with details that enrich and develop the theme
  • Goal: The paper is clear and focused. It holds the reader's attention. Relevant anecdotes and details enrich the central theme

How to achieve the Goal:

  1. The topic is narrow and manageable
  2. Relevant, telling, quality details go beyond the obvious
  3. Accurate details
  4. writing from knowledge or experience; ideas are fresh and original
  5. Reader's questions are anticipated and answered
  6. Insight

Key Question:

  • Did the writer stay focused and share original and fresh information or perspective about the topic?

Organization:
  • Definition: The internal structure, the thread of central meaning, the logical and sometimes intriguing pattern of the ideas.
  • Goal: The organizational structure of the paper enhances and showcases the central idea or theme of the paper; includes a satisfying introduction and conclusion

How to achieve the Goal:

  1. An inviting introduction draws the reader in; a satisfying conclusion leaves the reader with a sense of closure and resolution
  2. Thoughtful transition
  3. Sequencing is logical and effective
  4. Pacing is well controlled
  5. The title, if desired, is original
  6. Flows smoothly, the reader hardly thinks about it

Key Question:

  • Does the organizational structure enhance the ideas an make it easier to understand?

Voice
  • Definition: The unique perspective of the writer coming through in the piece through honesty, conviction, integrity and believability
  • Goal: The writer of the paper speaks directly to the reader in a manner that is individual, compelling, engaging, and respects purpose and audience for the writing

How to achieve the Goal:

  1. Adds interest; appropriate of purpose and audience
  2. The reader feels a strong interaction with the writer
  3. The writer takes a risk
  4. Expository or persuasive reflects understanding and commitment to topic
  5. Narrative writing seems honest, personal and engagins

Key Question:

  • Would you keep reading this piece if it were longer? MUCH longer?

Word Choice:
  • Definition: The use of rich, colorful, precise language that moved and enlightens the reader
  • Goal: Words convey the intended message in a precise, interesting, and natural way

How to achieve the Goal:

  1. Words are specific and accurate
  2. Striking words and phrase
  3. Natural, effective and appropriate language
  4. Lively verbs, specific nouns and modifiers
  5. Language enhances and clarifies meaning
  6. Precision is obvious

Key Question:

  • Do the words and phrases create vivid pictures and linger in your mind?

Sentence Fluency:
  • Definition:The rhythm and flow of the language, the sound of word patterns, the way in which the writing plays to the ear, not just to the eye
  • Goal: The writing has an easy flow, rhythm and cadence. Sentence are well built

How to achieve the Goal:

  1. Sentences enhance the meaning
  2. Sentences vary in length as well as structure
  3. Purposeful and varied sentence beginnings
  4. Creative and appropriate connectives
  5. The writing has cadence

Key Question:

  • Can you FEEL the words and phrases flow together as you read it aloud?

Conventions:
  • Definition:The mechanical correctness of the piece; spelling, grammar and usage, paragraphing, use of capital, and punctuation
  • Goal: The writer demonstrates a good grasp of standard writing conventions (e.g., spelling, punctuation, capitalization, grammar, usage, paragraphing)

How to achieve the Goal:

  1. Spelling is correct
  2. Punctuation is accurate
  3. Capitalization skills are present
  4. Grammar and usage are correct
  5. Paragraphing is soung
  6. The writer may manipulate conventions for stylistic effect; and it works!

Key Question:

  • How much editing would have to be done to be ready to share with an outside source?

I hope this helps all of you who struggle with writing just like I did! :panic:

Edited by ~Julie~

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Organizing Everything You Wish to Write

In my IB class, I'm known for my over-the-top organization of my essays I'm not meaning to brag, just meaning to make a point). So I thought I would share my knowledge that I have learned over the years. Hope this helps all you guys! :panic:

Introduction:

  • A- attention grabber
    • an intriguing philosophical statement as the first sentence
    • a major quote as the first sentence
    • a very important question for the entire essay

    [*]N- need to know

    • name of the piece/book/work
    • author
    • background to the piece/book/work briefly (1-2 sentences)

    [*]T- thesis statement

    • the sentence that states what your essay will be about
    • this should, generally, always be the last sentence in the introduction (unless told otherwise by a teacher)

Remember: ANT (like the animal)

Body Paragraphs:

  • T- topic sentence
    • the sentence that states what the specific paragraph you are working on will be about
    • this is not a thesis statement; it applies to only the paragraph, not the essay as a whole

    [*]I- idea

    • your first idea concerning the main topic (in your topic sentence) of your paragraph

    [*]Q- quote

    • use quote(s) to support your first idea
    • vital step when analyzing literature

    [*]A- analysis

    • analyze your first idea and quote

  • T- transition
    • transition into a second idea

    [*]I, Q, A repetition

    • repeat the idea, quote, analysis steps

    [*]C- conclusion

    • conclude your paragraph with a "big bang"
    • wrap up what the point of your paragraph was
    • what did you discover through your analysis?

Remember: TIQA x 3 x 3 (for all of you math people who want a formula for your essays)

  • In other words, do the TIQA steps three time in each paragraph and have about 3 body paragraphs

Conclusion:

  • Briefly explain what you analyzed.
  • What did you discover/prove throughout your essay?
  • What is the significance of this discover/proof?

Edited by ~Julie~

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This is taken from a random sheet of paper my English A1 HL teacher gave our class about being Persuasive in our essay. So, I hope I am not breaking a copyright. I'm not copying it word fr word, just putting it into my own words mostly.

The Craft of Persuasion When Writing Arguments in Your Essays

Never underestimate the power of Persuasion when writing essays. Persuasion is the art of swaying people's feeling, opinions and actions. With compelling language, writers and speakers enhance strong arguments or disguise the flaws in the weak ones. To evaluate the real strength of an argument or be able to write you own persuasive argument, you first need to recognize the persuasive techniques and rhetorical devices that are being used to sway you or that you wish to utilize to sway others. Then you can objectively examine the evidence and determine your position.

Persuasive Techniques- Consider when you have encountered the following persuasive techniques: What are their intended effects on the readers, listeners and viewers?

Appeals by Association

  • Bandwagon Appeal- Taps into people's desire to belong


    • e.g. You have to come to the concert. Everyone's going to be there.

  • "Plain Folks" Appeal- Implies that ordinary people are on "our side" or that a candidate is like an ordinary person


    • e.g. Senator Jacob knows what it's like to struggle to make ends meet.

  • Testimonial- Relies on endorsements from well-known people or satisfies customers


    • e.g. As an Olympic athlete, I need all the energy I can get. That's why I start my day with Grain Puffs.

  • Transfer- connects a product, a candidate, or a cause with a positive image


    • e.g. Freedom is in your hands the minute you hit the road in a Mountain-back RV

Emotional Appeals

  • Appeals to Pity, Fear, or Vanity- uses words that evoke strong feelings, rather than facts and evidence, to persuade


    • e.g. for just one dollar a day, you can give a stray per a second chance.

Appeal to Values

  • Ethical Appeal- taps into the people's values or moral standards


    • e.g. Volunteer today- because it's the right thing to do.

Word Choice

  • Loaded Language- uses words with strongly positive or negative connotations to stir people's emotions


    • e.g. For the safety of our innocent children, we must protect our community from rampant crime.

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my A1 teacher advised us to write our introduction to WL essay in this format, but I also find it useful for my TOK essay. and I think this format of introduction can be used in any kind of essay.

  1. An opening sentence
    This may be in form of a question, a statement or a quote, that is relevant to your essay. Make this as interesting as possible, intriguing where appropriate, in order to grab reader's attention.
  2. A linking sentence (between your opening sentence and your essay topic)
    Link your opening sentence to your essay topic, show how your opening sentence relates to your essay.
    In an A1 essay, maybe you can write how your opening sentence relates to literature.
    In a TOK essay, maybe you can write how your opening sentence relates to your KI or your prescribed title. etc.
  3. Background information (up to 3 sentences)
    Give some info on what your essay is going to be about.
    In an A1 essay, you can mention the title and author of the texts you are using and talk about how your topic is relevant in your texts.
    In a TOK essay, you define the key terms in your KI/prescribed title to show your understanding of it or state any assumptions made.
  4. Thesis statement
    Every essay must have a thesis statement, which you should clearly mention in your introduction, so the reader knows what your essay is going to be about. Later when you write the essay, remember to write only around this thesis statement and not deviate from it.
    In a TOK essay, you need to state your KI here. Or you may formulate the prescribed title in your own words without changing its meaning.
  5. Aim/objective of the essay
    Tell the reader the aim of your essay.
    For example: to compare A and B, to evaluate C, to contrast D and E, to measure the extent to which F is true, etc etc

Keep in mind that you need to provide an overview of your essay through your introduction.

Edited by Desy Glau

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On 8/25/2007 at 10:15 PM, Survival Robot said:

HMSChocolate's At-a-Glance Guide to the Logical Academic Argument

(Not for the colour-blinded :lol: )

The logical academic argument should have:

  • Topic sentence (What the hell are you going to talk about?)
  • Elaboration of topic sentence (Then what?)
  • Explanation of significance of topic sentence (So what?)
  • Evidence for (How do you know this?)
  • Evidence against (if any) (Is there any thing saying it isn't true?)
  • Evidence supported with references (if any) (Where did you get this information? Can come in the form of footnotes. Here I used the Harvard referencing system.)
  • Analysis of evidence (What do the evidence mean?)
  • Re-iteration or qualification of significance of evidence, to come to a conclusion. (What's the point of all this?)

Example:

The cat sat on the mat. The outcome of this was that the mat became flat and this indicates that cats should be kept off mats. According to Smith (2004), mats that have cats sitting on them suffer deflation effects. On the other hand, studies by David (2005) suggest that cats sitting on mats have no deflation effect whatsoever. However, as David's studies were done on new-born cats only, this claim is not convincing and therefore negligible. Therefore, we can come to the conclusion that when cats sit on mats, the mats become deflated and thus, we should keep cats off mats if these mats are to remain in full shape.

~*~

What makes a good essay?

A successful academic essay should satisfy the critical thinking criteria, by consistently doing all or almost all of the following:

  • Accurately interprets evidence
  • Identifies the salient arguments for and against
  • Thoughtfully evaluates alternative points of view
  • Draws justified conclusions based on clearly explained reasons
  • Accurately and appropriately uses and/or cites source material
  • Presents ideas in a coherent, clear and technically correct maner.

Source: Euson, Baden. Communicating in the 21st Century. Milton, John Wiley & Sons Australia, 2005.

Post by: Ruan Chun Xian

This is the kind of help I was looking for, thanks!

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I am looking for someone who can help me still today. I need to write an urgent essay. Due to some reasons, I could not do it in due time. And now I am terribly late. Knowing my own skills, I will not be able to complete any writing work so quickly. But I have heard a lot about writing help online. Many students say they but their works from writing services like FastEssay. Do you think this method will work in my situation?

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Really very helpful recommendations. A clear step-by-step instruction, just start and do, but not for me. I have already made many attempts to write an essay myself, but it did not end in success. I found a site essay writing service reddit where I can choose a service that will solve my problem. I believe that if you don’t know how to do something well, then pay and let a specialist do it. What do you think?

Edited by LeslyDolson

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